Constitution on Ice: A Report on Immigration Home Raid Operations,
Immigration Justice Clinic, Benjamin N. Cardozo School
of Law at Yeshiva University, 2009, 38 pp
Utilizing records on ICE operations in the New York and New Jersey
area obtained under Freedom of Information Act lawsuits, this study is described by the authors as "the first public
document to collect and analyze the available evidence regarding the prevalence of constitutional violations occurring during
ICE home raids." Despite the goal of apprehending "high priority targets," e.g. immigrant gang members
and sex offenders, approximately two-thirds of arrests made under these operations are "collateral arrests of mere civil
immigration status violators." The authors are particularly sensitive to the impact of these efforts on local community
policing efforts, suggesting that "ICE home raid misconduct...undermines the traditional crime fighting mission
of local law enforcement agencies." The report contains a series of policy recommendations developed with assistance
from a six-member advisory panel chaired by Lawrence W. Mulvey, Chairman of the Nassau County Police Department in New York.
The Role of Local Police: Striking a Balance Between Immigration Enforcement and Civil
The Police Foundation, April, 2009, 256 pp.
year-long, groundbreaking study attempts to "give police a voice on (the) critical issue" of the proper role of
local police in immigration law enforcement. Based on focus groups with police officers around the country, the input of academic
experts, a survey of police officials, and a two-day conference in Washington, DC, in August, of 2008, this report concludes
that the "the costs of the 287(g) program outweigh the benefits." The study, however, goes beyond the controversial
287(g) program to examine the full range of collaboration between local police and federal immigration officials, including
the practice of checking the immigration status of noncitizens arrested for criminal violations, and the embedding of ICE
personnel within local police departments. The study finds that police officials are often subjected to intense political
pressure to "do something" about undocumented immigration, even when their understanding of the issues differs substantially
from majority opinion in the community. The report concludes with seven overarching recommendations, and features a series
of important studies that are included as appendices to the report, including an analysis of the rates of crime and imprisonment
associated with immigration and a study of the problems faced by undocumented youth transitioning to adulthood and lacking
legal work opportunities.
Crossing the Line: Damaging Immigration Enforcement Practices by New Jersey Police Following Attorney
General Law Enforcement Directive 2007-3,
The Center for Social Justice, Seton Hall University School of Law, April 2009, 31 pp.
Over a nine-month
period, this report documents 68 instances of New Jersey police referrals to Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), when
only a minor offense or no offense was charged. These cases are broken down into four categories: traffic stops, passengers
in cars, stopping people on the street, and questioning of victims or witnesses. Noting the possibility of a serious undercount
of such referrals, and the frequency with which Latinos were targeted, the authors see "a disturbing trend toward racial
profiling by New Jersey police." The report recommends that the Attorney General directive, which attempted to
set ground rules for police reporting to ICE, "should be repealed or fundamentally revised."
Bridging the Language Divide: Promising Practices for Law Enforcement,
Vera Institute of Justice, February, 2009, 64 pp.
With funding provided by the federal COPS office,
Vera undertook a comprehensive study of how local law enforcement agencies in the Unites States are addressing language barriers.
Contacting more than 750 agencies, evaluating practices from nearly 200, and doing in-depth analyses of 25, Vera singled out
six police jurisdictions doing exemplary work: Boise, Las Vegas, Lexington, Nashville, Oklahoma City, and Storm Lake.
The report shows how their techniques illustrate eight promising practices in achieving effective language outreach.
The report contains extensive appendices with sample agency documents and resources.
Webinar: Bridging the Language Divide: Promising Practices for Law Enforcement, Vera Institute of Justice, February
Representatives from three police agencies in communities of varying sizes (Boise, Idaho; Lexington,
Kentucky; and Storm Lake, Iowa), identified by Vera as leaders in the provision of culturally and linguistically appropriate
services, discuss their respective approaches: a Spanish language immersion program for police officers in Lexington,
the development of a community-wide interpreter bank in Boise; and the hiring of civilian bilingual outreach workers in Storm
Immigration Enforcement: Better Controls Needed over Program Authorizing State and Local Enforcement
of Federal Immigration Laws, General Accounting Office, January, 2009, 44 pp.
response to a congressional request to review the 287(g) program, which allows local law enforcement entities to enter into
agreements with U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) to participate in the enforcement of immigration laws, the
GAO undertook a performance audit of the program from September 2007 through January 2009. The GAO reviewed 29 of the
67 local law enforcement agencies participating in the program. The audit found major shortcomings in the management of the
program, including lax oversight and lack of clarity over program goals. Rather than ferreting out criminal
activity -- the ostensible purpose of the program -- 287(g) seems to be targeting individuals with minor violations,
such as traffic infractions. The GAO report concludes with five recommendations to improve the operation of the program.
The Need to Reconsider Attorney General Law Enforcement Directive No. 2007-3, New Jersey Immigration
Policy Network, October, 2008, 26 pp.
On August 23, 2007, NJ Attorney General Anne Milgramt released a
directive to local law enforcement agencies in New Jersey desisgned to "establish the manner in which (they) shall
interact with federal immigration authorities." This report argues that the directive has undermined community
policing, opened the door to abuses of local police authority, and compromised protections against domestic violence. The
report asks for major revisions in the directive to correct these problems.
http://demo.njipn.com/images//theneedtoreconsid%2340ec91.pdfMonitoring the Police: Opening the Process to the Public, A Look at Monmouth County, Latino Leadership
Alliance of NJ (Monmouth Chapter), National Latino Peace Officers Association (NJ Chapter) and the Hispanic Directors Association
of NJ, June, 2008, 8 pp.
This report discusses the disposition of 705 citizen complaints against police departments
in Monmouth County for the period 2001 to 2007. Most departments were not in compliance with state reporting requirements
and failed to discipline or prosecute at reasonable rates. The report identifies departments showing best and worst
practices, and concludes with ten recommendations to make the police monitoring process more transparent and effective, with
some attention to police relations with immigrant communities.http://www.monmouthpolice.com/
Police Chiefs Guide to Immigration Issues, International Association of Chiefs of Police, July, 2007,
This publication is a useful primer on immigration issues for police leaders in the United States. It
covers issues as wide-ranging as day laborers, housing, anti-immigrant groups, and human trafficking. Although the report
refrains from issuing recommendations, especially on the subject of police participation in immigration enforcement, it provides
a useful framework for local decision-making on immigrant-related issues. .http://www.theiacp.org/documents/pdfs/Publications/PoliceChiefsGuidetoImmigration.pdf
Overcoming Language Barriers: Solutions for Law Enforcement, Vera Institute of Justice, March, 2007,
With immigration in the U.S. growing and increasingly dispersed, many law enforcement practitioners are
looking for ways to improve contact with people who cannot speak or understand English well. This report is the work of Translating
Justice, a technical assistance project involving Vera's Center on Immigration and Justice and three diverse law enforcement
agencies-the Anaheim Police Department in California, the Clark County Sheriff's Office in Ohio, and the Las Vegas Metropolitan
Police Department in Nevada.http://www.vera.org/publication_pdf/382_735.pdf
Attorneys General and the Protection of Immigrant Communities, National State Attorneys General
Program at Columbia Law School, Memorandum, January 12, 2007, 11 pp.
This document argues that immigrants are
"particularly exposed to predatory practices, abuse, and fraud" and that state attorneys general must focus their
attention on this growing and often vulnerable population. It gives examples of successful initiatives around the country
and details strategies that may be employed in the "emerging field" of immigrant protection services.
Nine Point Position Statement: Enforcement of Immigration Laws by Local Police Agencies, Major Cities
Chiefs Association, June, 2006, 11 pp.
Representing 57 police jurisdictions in the United States and Canada
with populations of over 1.5 million, the Major Chiefs Associations produced this consensus position statement on the question
of local police enforcement of immigration laws. The statement enumerates several concerns with such a broadening of local
police power, including that of undermining the trust and cooperation of immigrant communities, and the diversion of police
resources away from normal police functions.
Justice and Safety in America's Immigrant Communities, Princeton University, Policy Research Institute
for the Region, 2006, 104 pp.
The report contains summaries and conclusions from a series of three, all-day
sessions devoted to the topic of improving relations between police and immigrant communities. The project was conducted in
collaboration with the New Jersey Institute for Social Justice and the Vera Institute of Justice.
Building Strong Police-Immigrant Community Relations: Lessons from a New York City Project, Vera Institute
of Justice, August, 2005, 33 pp.
This report provides an account of a project in 2003-2004 to create a "regular
forum for communication between police and immigrant communities," focusing on the Arab-American, African, and emerging
Latin-American communities. The report discusses outreach strategies, session content, and recommendations for institutionalizing
Forcing Our Blues into Gray Areas: Local Police and Federal Immigration Enforcement, A Legal Guide
for Advocates, Appleseed, 2005, 34 pp.
This report outlines the legal history behind local law enforcement of
federal immigration laws and argues that such expansion of local police authority makes fighting crime and terrorism more
News and Opinion
Skokie Review, July 22, 2009