100 Resilient Cities, May, 2017,
Funded by The Rockefeller Foundation,
100 Resilient Cities (100RC) helps cities around the world become more resilient to the physical, social, and economic challenges
of the 21st century. The Foundation provides funding for a Chief Resilience Officer in each member city.
Believing that the concept of resilience has relevance to the challenges posed by migration and that "the mass migration
we are witnessing today is not a temporary state of emergency, but the beginning of a new reality," 100RC convened a
meeting in Athens in September of 2016 to examine migration as a key component of urban planning. Eight cities (Los Angeles,
Montreal, Medellin, Paris, Amman, Ramallah, Thessaloniki, and Athens) played a lead role in planning this event. They were
joined by representatives of expert organizations, such as the International Rescue Committee, Welcoming America, and the
International Organization for Migration. The overriding goal of participants was to "unlock the Resilience Dividend,"
meaning that solutions developed for one challenge, e.g. immigration, should address multiple problems and constituencies.
This report, described as a "blueprint," summarizes "the aspirations and strategic approaches" of conference
participants. "It describes methods for integrating migrants into the formal economy; programs for lowering barriers
of entry to small businesses and entrepreneurs; innovative designs for housing; examples of new city departments for migration;
and many other programs for absorbing migrants in the long term while harnessing their contributions to the host community."
New Americans in Salt Lake County: A Snapshot of the Demographic and Economic Contributions of Immigrants
in the County
Partnership for a New American Economy, March, 2016, 4 pp.
This report is the fifth in a series of local economic
reports prepared by the Partnership over the last two years. Other reports in the series cover Denver, Cincinnati, Columbus, and Toledo. Each report tallies the spending power and tax contributions of foreign-born households, as well as their
workforce participation rates and industry concentrations. For example, in Salt Lake County, immigrants make up 16.7
percent of the labor force, but 29 percent of workers in the construction and manufacturing industries. The Salt Lake County
report also suggests that immigrants helped to create or preserve 6,403 local manufacturing jobs that would have otherwise
disappeared or moved elsewhere. Other data points in the Salt Lake report include: contributions to social security
and Medicare, entrepreneurship rates, immigrant housing wealth, and the economic impact of international students on the community.
Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Welcoming Cities: Lessons from Chicago, Dayton, and Nashville,
American Immigration Council, February, 2016, 21 pp.
Author: Paul N. McDaniel
Playing a disproportionately
large role in revitalizing communities throughout the United States, immigrant entrepreneurs should be factored into policies
and initiatives seeking to boost overall economic wellbeing. This is the argument that Paul McDaniel makes in this report
published by the American Immigration Council. Using interviews with researchers, business owners, government officials and
community organizations, the report compares programs in Chicago, a major immigrant hub; Nashville, an emerging immigrant
destination; and Dayton, a city with a small but growing immigrant population. The author details how the three cities designed
entrepreneurship initiatives for immigrants to achieve broader economic growth. Rather than relying on top-down approaches,
all three cities sought the input and participation of a wide array of community partners. In Chicago, for example, a New
Americans Plan was created which reduced barriers to launching restaurants by streamlining the application process and providing
a multilingual guide. The city also held entrepreneurship events that were specific to different ethnic and racial communities.
The report concludes with a listing of best practices that can be adapted by other cities such as highlighting the importance
of community-driven efforts and garnering public support for welcoming initiatives from local officials. (The Immigrant
Learning Center Public Education Institute)
Opening Minds, Opening Doors, Opening Communities: Cities Leading for Immigrant Integration,
Center for the Study of Immigrant Integration, University of Southern California, December, 2015, 48 pp.
Manuel Pastor, Rhonda Ortiz, Els de Graauw
The authors of this report explore municipal efforts to promote
immigrant integration by looking at 63 city-level institutions across the United States. In the face of a heated national
discourse that has often generated anti-immigrant sentiments, these cities are undertaking a "quiet revolution"
motivated by their belief in the potential of immigrants to revitalize local communities. Using data from the American Community
Survey and information from over 50 interviews and a literature review, the authors group the city initiatives into three
broad categories: defusing tensions, attracting newcomers, and integrating immigrants into more established immigrant gateways.
The authors include case studies of offices in Atlanta, Pittsburgh and San Francisco to illustrate the three approaches. The
report also looks at offices in other cities including Houston, Nashville, St. Louis and New York. Besides having strong mayoral
commitment, these offices tend to emphasize the economic contributions of immigrants, cooperation with local law enforcement,
and relationship-building between newcomers and receiving communities. Recommendations for new and existing integration efforts
include securing mayoral support, building institutional sustainability, collaborating with potential allies such as the business
sector and law enforcement, all while coordinating services for immigrants and developing opportunities for civic engagement.
(Jasmina Popaja for The ILC Public Education Institute)
Comprehensive Strategic Plan: 2015-2018
Office of International and Immigrant Affairs, City of Aurora (CO), 18 pp.
that "immigrant integration is essential to the vibrancy, safety, economic prosperity and cultural richness" of
cities, the City of Aurora undertook a strategic planning process to "maximize resources, develop innovative efforts,
and avoid duplication of programs and services aimed at the local immigrant and refugee community." The resulting
plan calls for a number of organizational changes, some of which have already been implemented. The previously existing Office
of International Initiatives was renamed the "Office of International and Immigrant Affairs." The Aurora Immigrant
and Refugee Task Force will be upgraded to Commission status, and an "international cabinet or inter-agency working group"
will be put in place, consisting of departmental representatives with responsibility over programs related to immigrant integration.
The plan lists activities in each of 8 goal areas: integration through civic engagement, safety in our international
city, integrating through language acquisition, integration in the neighborhoods, integrating through economic and financial
growth, internationality as a driving force for economic development, integrating through sports and recreation, integrating
through arts and culture, and integration through mental and physical health and wellness. The plan also lists key partners
for each goal area.
Cities Welcoming Immigrants: Local Strategies to Attract and Retain Immigrants in U.S. Metropolitan
Background Paper, World Migration Report, 2015
International Organization for Migration,
Author: Marie Price
The most forward-thinking U.S. cities view the retention and
inclusion of immigrants as critical to their success and sustainability. In Cities Welcoming Immigrants: Local Strategies
to Attract and Retain Immigrants in U.S. Metropolitan Areas, Marie Price of George Washington University utilizes case
studies of U.S. immigrant gateway cities to demonstrate that cities with plans to improve the socio-economic outcomes
of immigrants are lifted as a whole. The author finds that the most popular gateways for immigrants - New York, Chicago,
and San Francisco - view immigrant integration as critical to their overall health, while former gateways - Baltimore, Detroit,
and Pittsburgh - endeavor to attract more immigrants to stimulate their economies. Both types of cities have robust institutions
in place to communicate with and serve diverse immigrant groups, including multilingual educational materials and outreach
and initiatives to promote tourism and immigrant entrepreneurship. The report states that "emerging gateways," or
cities with a rapid growth of immigrants after 1980, are less likely to have created such institutions and are more prone
to nativism but still employ some strategies for immigrant inclusion. This paper concludes by recommending that, for
successful integration, cities employ thoughtful diversity and inclusion strategies with elements of outreach, demographic
analysis, leadership buy-in, and civic participation of the immigrants themselves. (Karly Foland for The ILC Public Education
Building Integrated Communities in Winston-Salem and Forsyth County, North Carolina: Demographics and
Perspectives of Foreign-Born Residents,
University of North Carolina (Chapel Hill), The Latino Migration Project, July, 2015,
Authors: Jessica White & Hannah Gill
This study aims to identify issues of concern
to local communities with growing immigrant populations so as to develop effective plans for immigrant integration. Nine percent
of Forsyth County residents and 11 percent of Winston-Salem residents were foreign born in 2012. The report draws on American
Community Survey data in addition to a survey of more than 200 Forsyth County residents from 23 countries, as well as public
meetings with 200 residents. Survey respondents identified many positive qualities about living in Winston-Salem and Forsyth
County, including friendly neighbors; proximity to essential resources such as jobs, highways and hospitals; economic affordability;
and work opportunities. Among the major challenges they faced were lack of adequate public transportation; discrimination
by police and in the workplace; inability to obtain legal status; and lack of access to English language education and educational
opportunities. The report includes recommendations made by the residents to ameliorate these conditions and encourage immigrant
integration including more support for immigrant students, better communication of city regulations and a more trusting relationships
between police and new residents. Information from this study will be used to guide the creation and implementation of a city-
wide action plan for immigrant integration in 2015 and 2016. This is the fourth assessment process completed by the Building
Integrated Communities (BIC) of the University of North Carolina. Since 2010, BIC has worked with four North Carolina Cities:
High Point, Greenville, Sanford and Winston-Salem, to develop such plans. (Chiara Magini for the Public Education Institute at The Immigrant Learning Center, Inc.)
Linking Innovation with Inclusion: Demography, Equity, and the Future of San Diego,
USC Program for Environmental and Regional Equity (PERE), July, 2015
Pastor, Alejandro Sanchez-Lopez, & Jennifer Ito
This report argues that social equity and growth must go
hand-in-hand if San Diego is to continue to prosper. The city has lost influence in state politics as the old "fishhook"
strategy linking Republican voters in San Diego, Orange, Central, and Inland counties of California broke down. At the same
time, the San Diego region has undergone a demographic transformation, having recently crossed the minority-majority threshold
and now counting 24 percent of its population as immigrants. Although the region's economy has been doing well, San Diego
is quickly losing its old manufacturing basis, resulting in a loss of middle income jobs and rising levels of social inequality.
With wages growing much more slowly for low- and middle-wage jobs compared to high-wage jobs, San Diego now ranks 62nd
in income inequality among the largest 150 regions in the U.S. The problem is most severe for Blacks and Hispanics, whose
poverty rate is twice that of whites. After a brief discussion of the emerging literature on the connection between equity
and growth, the report makes a number of recommendations in accordance with the principle of "interlinking (1) high-tech
and high-need, (2) innovation and inclusion, and (3) people and place." Among the recommendations in the "innovation
and inclusion" category is the development of a regional immigrant integration strategy, including the establishment
of an immigrant affairs office for the City of San Diego, similar to ones existing in Los Angeles and San Francisco. Among
the recommendations in the "people and place" category is a proactive campaign to promote the naturalization of
eligible immigrants. Other recommendations are designed to create opportunity for low-income residents in general.
The Welcoming Pittsburgh Plan: A Roadmap for Change
Welcoming Pittsburgh, June, 2015, 47 pp.
Shortly after taking office as Mayor of Pittsburgh in 2014, William
Peduto launched the Welcoming Pittsburgh initiative, an effort "to improve quality of life and economic prosperity for
immigrants and native born residents alike" and to grow the city's population by 20,000 in ten years' time. Through a
competitive process, Peduto convened an advisory body of 40 leaders from diverse communities and sectors to drive the community
consultation process and to develop a plan of action. After holding a series of five public meetings, gathering survey
responses from almost 2000 immigrants and native-born residents alike, and convening two "immigrant listening sessions,"
the committee released its Welcoming Pittsburgh Plan in June of 2015. The plan contains a set of 37 "actionable"
recommendations categorized as short-term (6 months to a year), mid-term (1 to 2 years), long-term (3 to 5 years), or ongoing.
The Committee grouped its recommendations into three broad focus areas: Welcome, Neighbor! Bridge to the City, and Prospering
Together -- each of which will be spearheaded by an "action team" appointed by the mayor. One of the short-term
recommendations in the "Welcome, Neighbor!" category will be the establishment of "Welcoming Hubs" at
select community or recreation centers in the city. A mid-term recommendation in the "Bridge to the City" focus
area will be the creation of a city office to coordinate immigrant integration activities. A long-term recommendation in the
"Prospering Together" area will be to improve the recertification process for immigrant professionals.
Welcoming Nashville: Perspectives and Trends (Executive Summary),
Welcoming America & Nashville Area Chamber of Commerce Research Center, June, 2015, 5 pp.
became a more diverse and international city, it experienced major economic gains and garnered a reputation for creativity
and innovation. The national nonprofit Welcoming America, in partnership with the Nashville Area Chamber of Commerce Research
Center, conducted a survey of some 200 local business and community leaders to determine their views on the relationship between
Nashville's vibrancy and its policies in support of immigrant integration. This executive summary of the survey results entitled, Welcoming
Nashville: Perspectives and Trends, found that Nashville's competitive regional success in business and tangible economic
gains across the city and in various sectors relied on welcoming immigrant workers, entrepreneurs, and their diverse knowledge
while eliminating exclusionary "English Only" policies. Significantly, over 80 percent of those interviewed
felt that immigrants helped businesses reach a more global audience and 70 percent believed immigrants helped make Nashville
a more innovative and productive economy. The report concludes with recommendations to continue fostering a welcoming climate
for immigrants, including encouraging mainstream organizations to develop programs to meet the unique needs and cultural backgrounds
of immigrants and their children. (The ILC Public Education Institute)
Immigrant integration in North Carolina: A Summit for Cities and Towns,
A report of the Latino Migration Project at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, January 2015, 15 pp.
This publication reviews activities and findings of "Immigrant Integration in North Carolina: A Summit for
Cities and Towns," hosted by the Latino Migration Project at the University of North Carolina in September 2014. The
paper describes effective immigrant integration practices and strategies implemented by four North Carolina's municipalities:
Charlotte, Greensboro, High Point, and Greenville. Best practices include: engaging diverse immigrant and refugee groups in
the integration planning process, recognizing their expertise on key questions, addressing common issues with other community
groups in order to broaden the dialogue, and recruiting immigrant leaders to serve on municipal boards and commissions. The
paper also summarizes the themes and "core values" that emerged from the workshops, including the importance of
involving immigrants in all phases of planned projects, especially in leadership roles, and connecting to the experience of
African American communities. The report also pinpoints some major challenges to the implementation of assessment-based recommendations,
such as political resistance and funding limitations, and offers final recommendations from both speakers and participants.
(Chiara Magini, The ILC Public Education Institute)
The Role of Immigrants in Growing Baltimore: Recommendations to Retain and Attract New Americans,
New Americans Task Force, City of Baltimore, September, 2014, 47 pp.
The City of Baltimore competes with other major U.S. cities in trying to attract and retain immigrants
as catalysts for economic growth and community revitalization. To better support immigrants, a New Americans Task Force created
by the Mayor's Office studied this challenge and opportunity. This report is the result of this inquiry, and it both reveals
the contributions of immigrants to the Baltimore area and makes recommendations to improve their integration into the community.
The report finds that, since 2000, Baltimore has experienced a resurgence of immigrants who have boosted Baltimore's economy.
In 2011, foreign-born workers earned approximately $1 billion in wages and their unemployment rate was almost two percentage
points below that of the general population. Immigrants also tend to be more highly educated and are more entrepreneurial;
they own 21 percent of the city's businesses, a figure three times greater than their seven percent share of population. However,
the report states that more can be done to engage with and support the city's immigrant population. As such, the report makes
32 recommendations to better identify and meet the needs of the immigrant community and to facilitate their economic
contribution. These recommendations are grouped into six categories: workforce development, small business development,
housing, welcome and diversity, safety, and youth. (Robert Smith for The Immigrant Learning
Center, Inc.'s Public Education Institute)
Immigrant Civic Integration and Service Access Initiatives: City-Sized Solution for City-Sized Needs,
Migration Policy Institute, September, 2014, 14 pp.
Author: Margie McHugh
report focuses on five cities of varying sizes (Cupertino, CA, San Francisco, CA, Littleton, CO, New York, NY, and Seattle,
WA) that have done promising work in promoting immigrant integration. The author draws content from five highly rated applications
for MPI's E Pluribus Unum Awards. Among the initiatives described in the report are: Cupertino's Block Leader Program,
Littleton's library-based one-stop information center, New York's city-wide language access policy, Seattle's Race and Social
Justice Initiative, and San Francisco's Community Ambassadors Program. A central element in all these initiatives is the effort
to "fully leverage existing resources...rather than the creation of parallel or stand-along services..." The various
programs also rely on "authentic partnerships" with community members and on strong political leadership, especially
from the mayor's office.
Revitalizing Detroit: Is There a Role for Immigration?
Migration Policy Institute, Transatlantic Council on Migration, August, 2014, 19 pp.
Author: Steve Tobocman
the past 50 years, Detroit has suffered from a spate of problems associated with urban decay culminating in its filing for
bankruptcy in 2013, the largest American municipality to do so. In this paper, author Steve Tobocman poses the question, "How
can immigrants help to revitalize Detroit?" Tobocman suggests that within a broad economic development policy, immigrants
can contribute to the revitalization of Detroit's economy -- a position supported by Michigan Republican Governor Rick Snyder.
Immigrants can make a difference in the following ways: first, as new immigrants tend to be younger and have a higher-than-average
fertility rate, they will help reverse Detroit's aging and declining population; second, attracting highly skilled immigrants
will expand the pool of knowledge-based human capital; third, as immigrants are more connected to the global economy,
they can help to improve Detroit's trade relations abroad; and fourth, immigrant entrepreneurs will move into struggling neighborhoods
to revitalize these areas. Tobocman argues that the biggest challenges facing Detroit is its image, which has kept immigrants
out of the city center where they are most needed, and ensuring that services and resources needed to support new residents
keep pace with any potential population growth. Finally, he reviews some of the initiatives that have been established under
the banner of Global Detroit, an organization that Tobocman leads, to attract and support immigrants. (Denzil Mohammed)
Giving Cities and Regions a Voice in Immigration Policy: Can National Policies Meet Local Demand,
Migration Policy Institute, July, 2014, 20 pp.
Author: Madeleine Sumption
What are the potential
gains and drawbacks to programs designed to give cities and regions greater control over immigrant admission? In this
essay, the author examines three policy frameworks that influence the regional settlement of immigrants and attempts to assess
their efficacy. The frameworks are: supply-driven immigration (when national or regional authorities do not directly decide
the destination of immigrants but immigrants gravitate to areas with jobs, family members and/or supportive communities);
national policies designed to respond to local circumstances (examples include employer selection, changing the threshold
requirements for immigrant salaries based on regional cost-of-living considerations, and encouraging wealthy immigrants to
invest in certain areas by lowering the required investment amount); and "subnational selection programs," which
actually giving regional authorities a say in the number and types of immigrants settling in their area (the two most prominent
examples are programs in Australia and Canada). Looking at the pros and cons of subnational selection programs, the
author concludes that "perhaps, the most compelling argument in favor of subnational selection is that it allows local
policymakers to admit workers with lower skills levels than the national standards - without requiring all jurisdictions
to admit such workers." Such programs, she points out, are not generally effective in attracting high
skilled immigrants, as they can qualify for admission under national criteria and would likely prefer opportunities in other
destinations. Another argument in support of such programs is that they "could help channel immigration toward
areas with the political commitment to integrate newcomers and/or fund settlement services." However, the bar is high
in areas lacking support networks for immigrants. Without "well thought-out investments in immigrant integration,"
such programs are not likely to succeed.
The City Brand: Champion of Immigrant Integration or Empty Marketing Tool?
Migration Policy Institute (MPI), August, 2014, 11 pp
Author: Elizabeth Collett
In this insightful
review of city branding strategies in both Europe and North America, Elizabeth Collett, Director of MPI Europe, distinguishes
between externally-focused approaches, or "branding to attract talent," and inward approaches, or "branding
to promote social cohesion." She notes how difficult it is to synchronize the two approaches into a unified campaign,
as they tend to appeal to different audiences. "Each targets very different immigrant cohorts. Strategies to attract
talent tend to be focused on a rarefied stratum of mobile and educated workers...Meanwhile, strategies to develop a binding
identity within a city must deal with those who actually live on its streets, irrespective of skill and status." Because
of the tension between the two approaches, cities tend to adopt a two-track approach. However, the author points out that
"without strong community identification and support, a brand will be worthless." In her conclusion, the author
identifies a number of strategies for successful branding, including committed leadership from across the political spectrum,
broad stakeholder involvement, and clear goals and benchmarks for measuring success.
Migration's local Dividends: How Cities and Regions Can Make the Most of Immigration,
Transatlantic Council on Migration, Council Statement, July, 2014, 12 pp.
Author: Demetrios G. Papademetriou
The Council produced this statement for its 11th plenary meeting held in London in November, 2013. Reflecting
the desire of many cities to attract immigrants to reverse economic decline and stimulate economic development, the statement
outlines a set of principles and recommendations that national governments should follow to help cities and regions satisfy
their human capital needs through immigration. The statement laments the fact that "systems for national governments
to consult localities over broader human mobility questions remain deeply underdeveloped." To correct this problem,
the statement recommends a "more organic ‘whole-of-government' and ‘whole-of-society' cooperation" on
both immigration and immigrant integration policy. Another major recommendation is to "allow employers, wherever possible,
to select immigrants." Such an approach would allow employers in less populated areas, such as health-care centers in
rural communities, to bring in needed medical personnel, even if national quotas are already oversubscribed. The Council cautions,
however, that declining cities and regions should not rely on immigration as a panacea because "success may require exit"
both for immigrants and native-born. Only if other conditions are met will the "immigration boost" be successful.
These include: nestling immigration policy into local economic development plans, creating the conditions for entrepreneurship
to flourish, ensuring that city institutions reflect the populations they serve, and "creat(ing) spaces for people to
interact, instead of trying to change where they live."
Enforcement and Immigrant Location Choice,
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, June, 2013, 34 pp.
Author: Tara Watson
Noting that "little
is known about how the policy environment (in local communities) affects where immigrants choose to live in the United States,"
Tara Watson, an associate professor of economics at Williams College, sets out in this paper to determine how strict immigrant
enforcement regimes influence mobility decisions by immigrants. She selects communities with 287(g) agreements with the federal
government permitting local police to enforce immigration laws. Apart from the outlier case of Maricopa County near the Mexican
border in Arizona, "there is no evidence that local enforcement causes the foreign-born to exit the United States
or deters their entry from abroad or from elsewhere in the United States." However, there is abundant evidence
that such agreements cause relocations across local areas, states, and regions of the United States. What is striking, however,
is that "the effects are concentrated among more educated non-citizens... (who) are likely to be documented and to be
productive workers in the economy." Thus, according to the author, these agreements "may be missing their
intended targets." Policymakers seeking to attract and retain skilled immigrants "should consider their enforcement
The San Francisco Immigrant Integration Project: Findings from Community-Based Research Conducted
by the San Francisco Immigrant Legal & Education Network,
2014, 32 pp.
Despite having adopted
a "sanctuary city" policy for its large immigrant population, San Francisco is not giving its immigrants sufficient
access to essential services, not opening wide the doors of economic opportunity and not engaging with community members.
This conclusion appears in a report by the San Francisco Immigrant Legal & Education Network (SFILEN), a network
of immigrant service and empowerment organizations in the city. In addition to surveying over 600 immigrants, SFILEN
staff conducted more than 30 one-on-one interviews and nine in-language focus groups, and convened more than 150 community
members to discuss the results. The goal of this two-year community research effort was to assess the progress of immigrant
integration in the city and provide policy recommendations to fill any gaps. The report finds that immigrants face barriers
to critical services and programs, have difficulty in accessing affordable housing, are underemployed, are ignorant of their
healthcare options and have a fear of law enforcement. Often, immigrants utilize "creative, community-based systems,"
informal networks, cooperative models and mutual aid programs to fill the service gaps they encounter. The authors suggest
that meaningful immigrant integration necessitates improved access to basic services that can only be achieved through expanded
community education, innovative and culturally appropriate strategies to overcome access barriers, and relationship-building
with receiving communities. (Denzil Mohammed)
Revitalization in the Heartland of America: Welcoming Immigrant Entrepreneurs for Economic Development
Immigration Policy Center, January, 2014, 13 pp.
Author: Paul McDaniel
Several areas of the country are seeking to attract immigrants and to foster their economic integration as part of
a new strategy to spur economic growth and stem population decline. In Revitalization of the Heartland of America: Welcoming
Immigrant Entrepreneurs for Economic Development, author Paul McDaniel looks at welcoming initiatives in three places:
Detroit, St. Louis, and rural Iowa. Global Detroit, for instance, is working to encourage immigrant-led neighborhood
revitalization through small-business support and services. The St. Louis Mosaic Project conducts public education on the
importance of immigrants and offers professional networking opportunities for immigrant entrepreneurs. In Iowa, the State
University Extension and Outreach Office conducts trainings to develop the leadership skills of newly-arrived immigrants.
Research suggests that initiatives such as these make local communities "more resilient when faced with economic
shocks," Among the author's policy recommendations are partnerships between native-born and immigrant-owned businesses,
enhanced integration initiatives, and comprehensive immigration reform at the federal level that creates clear pathways to
citizenship and supports immigrants who want to start their own businesses. (Denzil Mohammed)
Blueprints for Immigrant Integration
New York City Mayor's Office of Immigrant Affairs, 2013
Knowing that cities
across the country are interested in New York City's efforts to integrate immigrants and enhance the capacity of immigrants
to spur economic development, the New York City Mayor's Office of Immigrant Affairs has produced a series of "Blueprints
for Immigrant Integration." The Blueprints were first released in conjunction with the Cities for Immigrant Integration
Conference, hosted by the City of New York on April 25, 2013, and are "designed to eliminate the mystery and provide
step-by-step guidance on how to better serve immigrant residents." There are six separate blueprints: Introduction/Creating
a Municipal Immigrant Integration Agenda, Citizenship, Civic Engagement, Economic Development, Language Access, and Police
& Community Relations. Five more Blueprints are forthcoming: Education, Public Health and Health Care, Libraries,
Financial Empowerment, and Domestic Violence Prevention. The first (introductory) Blueprint notes that since 2010, New
York City has launched "more than forty unique initiatives and policy efforts...to support immigrant New Yorkers."
The Chicago New Americans Plan: Building a Thriving and Welcoming City,
Office of New Americans, City of Chicago, December, 2012, 48 pp.
Elected Mayor of Chicago in February
of 2011, Rahm Emanuel created the Office of New Americans the following July with the goal of making Chicago "the world's
most immigrant-friendly city." Almost two years in the making, this plan outlines a set of 27 initiatives "to
help immigrants overcome obstacles and contribute more fully" to the city. Described as "the first of its
kind for any major city in the country," the plan is also designed to bring "economic, social, and cultural benefits
for all Chicagoans." All initiatives are grouped into three broad categories: economic growth and jobs, better educated
youth, and vibrant welcoming communities. The plan seeks to institutionalize immigrant integration as a cross-sector
and cross-departmental goal and to utilize the resources of a wide array of public and private agencies to achieve its goals.
Among the eight initiatives in the "economic growth" category are: creating a small business incubator, launching
a "Chamber University" to support immigrant businesses, providing "pop-up city services" in offsite locations,
and helping skilled immigrants reenter their former professions. Among the seven initiatives in the education category are:
expanding early childhood education and creating more parent engagement centers. The 12 initiatives in the "vibrant welcoming
communities" category are divided into three broad areas: public safety, access to services, and civic engagement.
Practice to Policy: Lessons from Local Leadership on Immigrant Integration,
Cities of Migration, 2012, 27 pp.
Editor: Bonnie Mah
This is the concluding volume in a series of
reports highlighting promising local practices in immigrant integration. The first five reports cover local practices in Germany,
Spain, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and the United States, with separate reports devoted to each country. The final
report features essays by four international experts on immigrant integration: Audrey Singer (Brookings Institution, United
States), Roland Roth (Magdeburg-Stendal University, Germany), Myer Siemiatycki (Ryerson University, Canada), and Jan Niessen
(Migration Policy Group, Belgium). Singer emphasizes the shift in immigrant settlement to the suburbs and the need for these
communities to develop new approaches to immigrant incorporation. Roth emphasizes the connection between good integration
policies and the economic competiveness and vitality of cities and give examples of how cities have helped to unleash the
economic power of immigrant communities; Siemiatycki stresses the role of municipal planning, zoning, and land use in
creating integrated cities; and Niessen stresses the importance of a coordinated approach to immigrant integration, involving
government at all levels, as well as the private sector. He also points out "that migration is not necessarily linear
but often becomes a circular process. Migration is more than the geographical movement of people because it leads to the circulation
of social and financial capital and to cultural exchange." The report concludes with a list of 14 recommendations for
local governments committed to the goal of immigrant integration.
Restrictive State and Local Immigration Laws: Solutions
in Search of Problems,
American Constitution Society
for Law and Policy, Issue Brief,
November, 2012, 18 pp.
Authors: Pratheepan Gulasekaram & S. Karthick Ramakrishnan
This study challenges the assumption that restrictive state and local immigration ordinances are driven by demographic
and other changes on the state and local level, e.g. growth of the immigrant (especially undocumented) population, and the
"failure" of the federal government to combat the problem. One of the better-known proponents of this view, according
to the authors, was Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia, who wrote in his dissent to the 2012 Arizona v. United States
decision that "Arizona bears the brunt of the country's illegal immigration problem..." Reinforcing the pervasiveness
of this view has been the emphasis on "new destinations" in the immigration narrative, which suggests that local
communities without a recent migration history have been overwhelmed by the arrival of new immigrants. Through the authors'
study of over 25,000 local jurisdictions in all 50 states, they found that the demographic explanation had "no predictive
power." Indeed, "what most subfederal jurisdictions with immigration enforcement laws share is not economic
stress or overconsumption of public goods or heightened violent crime, but rather a partisan composition within their legislative
and executive branches that is highly receptive to enforcement heavy proposals." Cities in Republican-majority
areas are four times more likely to pass restrictive ordinances, whereas cities with Democratic majorities are four times
more likely to pass pro-immigrant measures. Fearful of antagonizing Republican primary voters who "care intensely
about immigration," elected Republican officials are either voted out by more conservative challengers or embrace restrictive
positions. At the same time, "restrictive issue entrepreneurs," such as the leaders of FAIR and NumbersUSA "purposefully
promote legislative gridlock at the federal level, and then cite the very national legislative inaction they helped foment
to justify restrictive solutions at the local level." The authors also take issue with Professor Peter Spiro's "steam-valve"
theory, which posits that the passage of local restrictive ordinances relieves pressure on the federal government to pass
similar legislation. Finally, they predict that these political dynamics, despite the results of the 2012 presidential
election, will make national legislative change "difficult to achieve" and even if national immigration reform passes,
anti-immigrant politicians may continue to proliferate restrictive legislation on the local level as a way of holding
on to power.
Public Space Management: Report to the Intercultural Cities Research Programme,
Cities Institute, London Metropolitan University, September, 2012, 81 pp.
Sue Bagwell, Graeme Evans, Antje Witting, Ken Worpole
In response to a request from the Council of Europe, this
report examines "the intercultural use of public spaces," with special attention to three key types of space: community
gardens, public amenities such as libraries, and urban parks. According to the authors, such spaces have the potential to
foster intercultural connections among diverse community members; moreover, the design of spaces, as well as the policies
that control their usage, can impact how diverse groups are incorporated into, or excluded from, the public sphere. The authors
provide several case study examples from the UK and the Netherlands along with a synthesis of best practices that highlight
the promotion of intercultural activity. Best practice examples include: creating a calendar of public events in order to
identify and address diversity related gaps; ensuring that services, activities, and staffing of public programming and facilities
reflect the makeup of local communities; and asset mapping public spaces to determine their accessibility to different ethnic
and minority communities. The authors conclude by examining potential barriers to promoting inclusion within public space
and offer solutions for overcoming common challenges, including concerns over public safety. A literature review is included
in the Appendix. (Dan McNulty)
Good Ideas from Successful Cities: Municipal Leadership on Immigrant Integration,
Cities of Migration, 2012, 94 pp.
Cities of Migration first issued its Call for Good Ideas in city-led
immigrant integration efforts in October of 2011. To date, some 100 cities from around the world have responded to the
Call. According to Cities of Migration, "these cities view inclusion and diversity as core values and assets in
today's global economy." This collection of 39 model practices from 14 countries in Europe, North America, Australia
and New Zealand shows the breadth and vitality of these efforts. Practices are grouped into five broad categories:
crafting general policy statements to guide city efforts (5); promoting immigrant inclusion, participation and belonging (7);
using the city's economic power to promote integration (5); adapting city services to the needs of immigrant communities (17);
and promoting immigrant entrepreneurship as a strategy for economic development (5). The descriptions of the good practice
(1-2 pages in length) include contact information for responsible municipal officials to facilitate further research.
Mexican Consular Assistance and Immigrant Integration,
(Link no longer active)
National League of Cities, Practice Brief, 2012, 4 pp.
The 50 Mexican consulates
in the United States are the largest and most extensive consular network of any foreign government in the country. For the
last 20 years, and especially since the creation of the Institute for Mexicans Abroad (IME) in 2003, the Mexican consulates
have fostered and developed programs to assist, educate and help Mexican citizens in the U.S. This publication provides
brief summaries of the work undertaken by ten of these consulates in the states of Alaska, Arizona, California, Illinois,
Missouri, and New Mexico.
Integration in Chicago's Suburbs: A Survey of Current Activities and Efforts,
Diversity Issues Task Force, Metropolitan Mayors Caucus, February, 2012, 74 pp.
Reflecting the growing
presence of immigrants in the Chicago suburbs and the related challenges faced by municipal leaders in providing services
to them, the Guidebook is designed to overcome the "isolation" of some municipal leaders who are often unaware of
successful immigrant-related initiatives in other communities. The report notes that "the increase in immigrants
to Chicago's suburbs means that municipal governments are increasingly responsible for serving residents that are new not
only to their community, but also the country." With support provided by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation,
an online survey was distributed to mayors, village managers, and Council of Government directors. The first section of the
report summarizes responses from the 109 communities that responded to the survey. Follow-up interviews were conducted with
leaders in 8 municipalities (Addison, Aurora, Bensenville, Carol Stream, Evanston, Mount Prospect, Schaumburg, and Skokie)
whose work is profiled in greater detail in the next section. The final section of the report discusses the work of 13 "organizations
located in the suburbs that offer services and resources for foreign-born residents." Three of these organizations are
the Illinois Welcoming Center in North Riverside, the Language Access Resource Center of DuPage County, and the Mano a Mano
Family Resource Center in Round Lake Park.
Staying Put but Still in the Shadows,
Center for American Progress, February, 2012, 24 pp.
This policy brief cites evidence from
a University of California (San Diego) study of unauthorized Mexican immigrants in Oklahoma City - a city which passed punitive
legislation against unauthorized immigrants in 2007 and 2009, well before similar state laws in Arizona, Georgia and Alabama.
In 2010, a bi-national team of researchers surveyed nearly all adults between 15 and 65 in Tlacuitapa (Jalisco), Mexico -
a town which sends many immigrants to Oklahoma City -- and several hundred migrants from the town who live in the United States.
The researchers concluded that "at best, anti-immigrant laws simply drive immigrants from one area (of the country) to
another." The essay also explains the main reasons why immigrants choose to remain in the country
on Integration at Local Level
European Network against Racism (ENAR), November, 2011, 45 pp.
Consisting of over 700 organizations
working to combat racism in member states of the European Union (EU), ENAR produced this Toolkit to call attention to local
projects adhering to ENAR's 15 principles for ensuring a "positive approach" to immigrant integration. The
Toolkit critiques certain aspects of EU public policy which tend to "dilute" or "subvert" integration
goals. According to ENAR, "unless integration contributes to achieving equality, our communities will remain divided."
The report profiles six promising integration projects in Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.
All projects underwent "peer review" to determine whether they were successful in achieving their stated goals.
The Toolkit concludes by outlining important steps that new integration projects should take to ensure successful outcomes.
Welcome Dayton: Immigrant Friendly City,All Immigration is Local: Receiving Communities and Their Role in Successful Immigrant Integration,
City of Dayton, Human Relations Council, September, 2011, 30 pp.
City of Dayton (Ohio), under the leadership of its Human Relations Council (HRC) and with the input of more than 100
individuals and community organizations, produced this "roadmap for the City of Dayton to become a nationally recognized
Immigrant Friendly City." The plan was officially accepted by the Dayton City Commission on October 5, 2011. The plan
contains 20 recommendations and is divided into four sections: business and economic development; local government and the
justice system; social and health services; and community, culture, arts and education. An ordinance to establish a Welcome
Dayton Committee, as well as "small part-time office within the HRC to staff the Welcome Dayton Committee," is under
preparation. The plan is intended as a community-wide effort, involving both public and private partners.
Starting on Solid Ground: The Municipal Role in Immigrant Settlement,
Federation of Canadian Municipalities, 2011, 30 pp.
municipalities as "the front-line, first-responders for many immigrant needs," the authors of this report recommend
a new approach to Canadian immigration policy, one that "engages municipalities to tailor solutions to local needs."
Although Canadian municipalities are neither mandated nor funded to provide immigrant integration services, they are doing
it anyway, particularly in the key areas of rental housing and public transportation, where immigrants are disproportionate
users of these services. The report gives specific examples of municipal initiatives to promote immigrant integration and
concludes with five recommendations, including urging the Canadian federal government to view municipalities as "key
partners" in the resettlement process.
Center for American Progress, September, 2011,
Written by Michael
Jones-Correa of Cornell University, this report argues for the engagement of receiving communities in immigrant integration
efforts and suggests four key strategies to bring about such engagement: promoting strong local leadership, fostering
contact between immigrants and the native-born, building partnerships between state and local government and immigrant
communities, and reframing issues to counter misconceptions about immigrants. The report contains examples of
how these strategies were employed in specific communities, with many examples drawn from convocation on the Receiving Communities
Initiative, held in Washington, D.C., in December, 2010. The author emphasizes the importance of developing metrics
for measuring the success of community engagement efforts, and concludes with a series of recommendations for philanthropic
institutions and government at all levels. A companion "toolkit" to the report, with practical suggestions and information
about local programs, will be released by the Spring Institute in October of 2011.
Crossroads of the World: New Americans in Middlesex County, New Jersey,
Program on Immigration and Democracy, Rutgers University, June, 2011, 21 pp.
by the United Way of Central New Jersey and written by Dr. Anastasia R. Mann, this report provides a detailed picture of the
foreign-born population in Middlesex County, home to the main campus of Rutgers University and the largest Asian population
in New Jersey. The report covers the broad range of newcomer groups, including foreign-students, H1-B visa holders (New Jersey
has one of the largest concentrations in the country), immigrant entrepreneurs, working class immigrants, and the undocumented.
The author highlights some of the challenges facing human service agencies and labor organizations working with the more vulnerable
segments of the immigrant population and offers some reflections on "policies to help newcomers and receiving communities
Immigrant Integration: Resource Access and Cultural Exchange,
National League of Cities, City Practice Brief, 2011, 8
This publication provides capsule summaries of 12 local government outreach programs designed to integrate
immigrants into civic and community life. Programs vary in their scope and purpose. Some, such as the Russian Advisory Board
in West Hollywood and theColoniasProgram in College Station, Texas, are focused on the needs
of specific immigrant communities. Others, such as the Office of Multicultural and Religious Affairs of the City of Memphis,
target the broader immigrant community. Programs also have different areas of emphasis. The Adopt-a-Mom Program in Guilford
County, North Carolina, for example, seeks to improve pre-natal care for Spanish-speaking women, whereas the Cambridge (MA)
City Links Program provides public sector internships for language minority youth.
Open to All?
Different Cultures, Same Communities: A Look at Immigrants and Housing in Chicago's Northern Suburbs
Nathalie P. Voorhees Center for Neighborhood and Community Improvement,
University of Illinois at Chicago, January, 2011, 85 pp.
Produced for the Interfaith Housing Center of the Northern
Suburbs with financial support provided by the Immigrant Integration Initiative of the Chicago Community Trust, this report
discusses the impact and policy implications of the growing immigrant population in 16 northern Chicago suburbs, where more
than a quarter of the population is foreign-born. Although race and disability discrimination still underlies the majority
of fair housing complaints nationally, 15% of complaints in 2009 were based on national origin. Examining housing stock growth
in the region during the period from 2000 to 2008, the researchers find a general trend of diminished affordability, with
disproportionate impact on the immigrant population. The report includes a section on promising practices employed by municipalities
to engage and serve immigrant communities.
Municipal Innovations in Immigrant Integration: 20 Cities, 20 Good Practices,
Action for Immigrant Integration, National League of Cities, 2010, 44 pp.
This set of practices, drawn from
U.S. cities of varying size and location, focuses on four areas: public safety, immigrant outreach, civic engagement,
and city services. Among cities deemed to have good immigrant integration practices are: Columbus, New York, Philadelphia,
Princeton, and Richmond. The report includes demographic profiles of each city, along with short descriptions of government
structures. In some cases, e.g. San Francisco, the "practice" in question is actually a combination of practices
designed to promote integration.
Civic Engagement and Recent Immigrant Communities: A Planning Guide for Local Officials and
Other Community Leaders,
National League of Cities, Center for Research and Innovation, 2010,
This publication provides guidance to local officials interested in integrating newcomers into the
civic life of the city. It includes step-by-step instructions for conducting meetings with small groups of local leaders
who are representative of the many cultural and ethnic groups in the community. The Guide suggests six important goals
that might be accomplished through an effort to promote immigrant civic engagement.
British Council, 2010, 70 pp
the OPENCities project of the British Council are the following assumptions: that openness is "a condition for strong
cities in the modern age;" that an openness agenda can be actively promoted by city leaders; that attracting and integrating
international migrants are important prerequisites for the open city; and that openness can be measured and compared among
cities. The report defines openness as "the capacity of a city to attract international populations and to enable them
to contribute to the future success of the city" and identifies more than 50 key indicators of openness. The report also
discusses practical steps that can be taken to advance openness and features case studies from Amsterdam, Auckland, Dublin,
Madrid, and Toronto, highlighting how each city has embraced openness in its effort to gain competitive advantage in the global
economy. This publication -- also available in Spanish, German, and Russian -- is the first of 4 to be released in 2010 addressing
a key issue on the OPENCities agenda.
State of Metropolitan America: On the Front Lines of Demographic Transformation,
The Brookings Institution, Metropolitan Policy Program, 2010, 168 pp
Prepared with support from
the Rockefeller Foundation, this report reviews and analyzes the major demographic trends impacting the 100 largest metropolitan
areas in the United States. Three of nine essays in this report -- all authored by Brookings staff members -- deal with immigration-related
topics: Population and Migration, Race and Ethnicity
, and Immigration.
A concluding essay addresses the policy implications of the five "new realities"
revealed in the research: the growth and outward expansion of the population, population diversification, aging, uneven higher
educational attainment, and income polarization. A companion resource is an interactive State of Metropolitan America Indicator
Creating Better Cities for Migrants: Urban Policies and Practices to Build More Inclusive
UNESCO and UN-Habitat, January, 2010, 20 pp.
new challenges for cities stemming from climate change, economic dislocations, and internal and external migration, UNESCO
and UN-Habitat developed this "tool kit" of effective municipal practices for managing diversity for the common
good. With 60% of the world's population expected to live in cities by 2030, the sponsoring international organizations
see fundamental changes in the "scale and scope of urban governance," The authors consider local political leaders
to be "key actors" in promoting "the social and spatial inclusion of migrants," who will constitute
a growing share of urban populations in the 21st century.
Immigrant Integration at the Local Level: Comparison between Stuttgart and Selected
Transatlantic Academy, 2009, 32 pp.
study looks at municipal immigrant integration strategies in a transatlantic perspective, comparing the well-resourced, city-wide
effort in Stuttgart, the sixth largest city in Germany and a designated integration model for other German cities, with a
cross-section of U.S. models, including the Mayor's Office of Immigrant Affairs in New York City, the work of private sector
organizations, such as the Arabic Community Center for Economic and Social Services (ACCESS) in the Detroit area and
the International Institute of St. Louis (MO), and policy-oriented research initiatives undertaken by the Urban Institute
and the Center for Women in Government and Civil Society at SUNY, Albany.
Parks for All New Yorkers: Immigrants, Culture, and NYC Parks,
New Yorkers for Parks, October, 2009, 14 pp
Dedicated to ensuring that "all New Yorkers enjoy a world class parks system,"
New Yorkers for Parks used various research techniques to prepare this report, including a multilingual survey of park users,
interviews with members of the New York Immigration Coalition's Parks Collaborative, and a literature review. The report identified
nine ways that the City can improve the connections between new immigrants and parks, including providing resources to enhance
translation services, implementing a transparent process to issue permits for fields and events, and increasing culturally
diverse food vendors in parks.
Mayoral Immigrant and Latino Affairs Offices: A City Practice Brief,
National League of Cities, Spring, 2009, 4 pp.
This brief describes nine municipal offices in seven
states and the District of columbia established to promote immigrant integration.
Meeting the Challenge of Linguistic Diversity,
New Jersey Municipalities, March, 2009, 3 pp.
This article discusses the growing number of limited
English proficient residents in towns across New Jersey and the steps that local governments can take to make their operations
and services more accessible to this segment of the population.
A Local Official's Guide to Immigrant Civic Engagement,
Institute for Local Government, 2008, 28 pp.
Produced by the research arm of the California League of Cities and the California State Association
of Counties, this guide is one in a series of studies by the Institute's "collaborative governance initiative."
The guide features case examples of communities in California and elsewhere that have been particularly effective
in engaging immigrants in community decision-making and gives "10 keys" to encourage immigrant participation
in civic life.
An International Destination
Point: Executive Summary Report by the International Philadelphia Work Group,
(Link no longer active),
City of Philadelphia, November, 2008, 15 pp.
Produced in response to an executive order by Mayor Michael
A. Nutter, this report asserts that policies to promote immigrant integration are essential to achieve Philadelphia's goal of
becoming an international economic hub and destination. Immigration, the authors conclude, is crucial to reversing
Philadelphia's cyle of population decline and stimulating economic development. The report highlights innovative integration
practices within the four priority areas of Philadelphia's strategic plan: jobs and economic development, public safety, healthy
and sustainable communities, and education.
Immigration Reform: An Intergovernmental Imperative,
International City Managers Association, October, 2008, 41 pp.
This "white paper," based on
more than 500 responses by local government officials to a survey on immigration conducted in the summer of 2008, urges "a
clearly articulated division of responsibilities" between the federal government and local governments on immigration
matters and the enactment of "sensible" federal immigration reforms, recognizing the special burdens and responsibilities
borne by local government in helping to assimilate immigrants into local communities. The paper defines four principles
to guide immigration reform and makes 16 specific recommendations consistent with these principles. The paper features an
array of case examples of local immigrant initiatives around the country.
Based on field research conducted by a team of 7 graduate students, with guidance from the
staff of the Migration Policy Institute in Washington, D.C., this report explores how local governments in three "gateway"
cities are responding to growing immigrant populations. The report explores the nature and effectiveness of
"horizontal" structures to facilitate immigrant integration and also devotes considerable attention to school
policies and programs. The authors also suggest some best practices, largely in the area of human resources, to
create more responsive governmental institutions.
Arguing the Los Angeles is on the "leading edge" of demographic change
due to immigration, with an expanding second generation and a declining first, and with over 40% of all students in the L.A.
public schools classified as English language learners (a number three times higher than the school system with the next highest
number), this report suggest that Los Angeles could become an important laboratory for systematically addressing issues of
immigrant integration. The report contains demographic data specific to the city and numerous recommendations for policy reform,
especially in the areas of workforce issues, English language acquisition, PreK-12 education, and health and safety net concerns.
Favoring "universal policies" over "particularistic or categorical policies," this report provides
a menu of policy options for cities intent on responding to the needs of their growing immigrant populations. Options are
grouped into four main categories: immigration law enforcement (e.g. policies prohibiting the collection of data on immigration
status), employment and self-employment (e.g. living wage ordinances, local hiring mandates for developers), health care (e.g.
targeted outreach to boost enrollment in public funded health insurance programs), and other basic services (e.g. language
access policies, municipal ID cards). The report also summarizes reasons why immigrant-friendly policies are vital to the
well-being of cities.
Report of the Mayor's Task Force on Immigration,
City of Vancouver, Canada, November 2, 2007, 20 pp.
With 46% of its residents foreign-born, Vancouver
has the second highest concentration of immigrants in Canada. The City has undertaken a number of initiatives to ensure the
accessibility of city services and to create an inclusive community. This report is the latest in a series of policy recommendations
to the City Council. One of the recommendations calls for the adoption of a "vision and value statement concerning immigrants
Pro-Immigrant Measures Available to State or Local Governments: A Quick Menu of Affirmative Ideas,
National Immigration Law Center, September, 2007, 6 pp.
This is a list of 71 policy recommendations designed
to "more effective incorporate immigrants into their communities." Many of them have been successfully implemented
in communities around the country.
Division and Dislocation: Regulating Immigration through Local Housing Ordinances,
Law Foundation, Summer, 2007, 16pp.
This report examines the demographic characteristics of localities that
have passed ordinances penalizing landlords who rent to undocumented immigrants, as well as the legal objections to, and economic
fallout from, such ordinances.
"Promising Practices in Communitywide Planning,"
in Investing in Our Communities: Strategies for Immigrant Integration,
Grantmakers Concerned With Immigrants
and Refugees, 2006
GCIR profiles six local initiatives that demonstrate strategic vision and considerable promise
to promote the full integration of newcomers into our society.
The Role of Municipal Leaders in Helping Immigrants Become an Integral Part of Colorado's Communities,
The Colorado Trust and the Colorado Municipal League, June, 2006, 12 pp.
This report offers
recommendations to municipal officials to achieve more inclusive communities, along with best practices from nine Colorado
Immigrant Engagement in Public Open Spaces: Strategies for the New Boston,
Barr Foundation, 2005, 23 pp.
This report is a passionate brief for accomodating immigrant cultures
in the design, management, and utilization of public open space. Based on a literature review, interviews with park professionals
and environmental activists, and focus groups with newcomers in Boston, the report is replete with examples of innovative
park practices, both in Massachusetts and around the country.
Immigrants and Local Governance: The View from City Hall,
Public Policy Institute of California, Issue #101, June, 2005, 115 pp.
Based on mail surveys and interviews
with local officials in 304 immigrant destination communities in California, this report summarizes local government practice
in responding to the needs of immigrants, with special attention to housing policy and police-community relations. The
report also contains a set of recommendations
Final Report of the Immigrant Community Assessment,
Prepared under contract #14830 for Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County, Tennessee, August 15,
2003, 253 pp.
This report is one of the most thorough and painstaking studies of a local immigrant population
in the United States. Growing out of a "historic and constructive collaboration" between three local universities,
local social service providers, immigrant and refugee community representatives, and local government, the report was researched
and written by a team of four sociologists, two psychologists, one education researcher, one health researcher, and one lawyer-social
worker. It contains the results of 16 immigrant focus groups, surveys and interviews with 64 social service agencies and community
groups, a study of best practices in immigrant integration in the cities of Atlanta, Charlotte, and Memphis. and numerous
recommendations to "enhance and encourage a mutually beneficial incorporation of immigrants and refugees into Nashville."