|RESOURCES ON THE RESPONSE OF STATE GOVERNMENT TO IMMIGRANTS|
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An important strategy for achieving immigrant integration is to establish centers of leadership,
coordination, resource management, and accountability within state government. A number of states have established such centers.
This collection contains reports and studies pertaining to the operation of such centers. It also includes studies
of changing political dynamics and restrictionist activities within states.
Report of the Task Force on the Preservation of Heritage
Language Skills in Maryland,
2015 Immigration Report,
National Conference of State Legislatures, Immigrant Policy Project, July 31, 2015, 12 pp.
in 46 states and Puerto Rico enacted more laws and resolutions related to immigration from January to June 2015 compared to
the same period last year: 153 laws and 238 resolutions (a 16 percent increase). These are summarized in the 2015 Report
on State Immigration Laws from the National Conference of State Legislatures. Most new laws (35 laws in 24 states, or
23 percent overall) were for budgeting purposes such as authorizing funds for immigration enforcement, health services, and
migrant and refugee programs. Education was the second-highest category covered by the new laws; 23 laws in 14 states (or
15 percent of new laws). Many laws addressed immigration and residency requirements for access to higher education; seven
states included portions of the federal naturalization exam in high school civics requirements. Attitudes towards the undocumented
differed between states; for example, a new Rhode Island law ensured all homeless people have the right to homeless shelter
services regardless of immigration status, while a measure passed in Maine clarified that only non-citizens lawfully present
in the U.S. will be eligible for general assistance. Other areas of legislative focus included driver's licenses, human trafficking
and voting. Delaware and Hawaii enacted legislation to give unauthorized immigrants driving privileges, while California established
a statewide director of immigrant integration. (Crystal Ye for The ILC Public Education Institute).
The California Package: Immigrant Integration and the Evolving Nature of State Citizenship
Policy Matters, University of California (Riverside), Spring, 2015, 19 pp.
Authors: S. Karthick Ramakrishnan & Allan
After states and localities in the mid-2000s passed a rash of laws designed to strengthen immigration
enforcement, momentum began to shift in 2012 towards pro-immigrant laws designed to achieve greater immigrant integration.
The state of California was a leader of this movement, producing what the authors of this article describe as the "California
Package" of legislation, including laws on postsecondary education, driver licenses, professional licenses, health care,
and limits on cooperation with federal immigration law enforcement. After summarizing these laws, the authors
attempt to answer the empirical question as to why this change from Arizona-style laws to California-style laws took place
in the first place. Two important factors were the defeat of Mitt Romney in 2012 and the decision of the immigrant rights
advocacy community to focus its energies on policy battles in the states. The authors also suggest that the "California
Package" represents "a de facto regime of state citizenship...that operates in parallel to national citizenship."
This "alternative form of civic membership" remains largely unexplored by citizenship scholars, who
tend to see various levels of government working together to establish full citizenship. Even if comprehensive immigration
reform is ultimately passed by Congress, California blurs the distinction between unauthorized and authorized immigrants,
by not imposing a time requirement for what the author calls "life chances and free presence." This "decoupling"
of state and federal citizenship raises important legal questions as to whether the court system will ultimately set limits
on sub-national pro-immigrant legislation or whether the Tenth Amendment protects state rights to enact laws protecting their
The California Blueprint: Two Decades of Pro-Immigrant Transformation,
National Immigration Law Center, May, 2015, 7 pp.
This report provides capsule summaries of 29 pieces
of pro-immigrant legislation that the State of California has passed over the last two decades. Some laws were intended to
counteract two 1996 congressional acts that greatly restricted immigrant eligibility for federally-funded benefit programs.
Other laws sought to prevent the entanglement of the police with the "machinery of deportation." Still other laws
were designed to protect the rights of immigrant workers, such as a 2014 law that mandates the suspension of a business license
for an employer who retaliates against immigrants by reporting their status to the federal government. The last part of the
report describes legislation in the areas of higher education, civil rights, child welfare, naturalization, and services for
DACA recipients. (Louisa Johnson for The ILC Public Education Institute).
Share the Road: Allowing Eligible Undocumented Residents Access to Driver's Licenses Makes Sense for
New Jersey Policy Perspective, September, 2014, 14 pp.
Author; Erika J. Nava
This report presents
a series of arguments in support of issuing driver's licenses to eligible undocumented immigrants. The author groups these
arguments into three categories: making New Jersey safer, helping New Jersey's economy, and increasing the well being of families.
She notes that states that were early adopters of license or privilege cards have seen reductions in fatal accidents, along
with reductions in the percentage of drivers without insurance. Among the economic benefits of issuing licenses are: reductions
in insurance premiums for all drivers, increases in state revenue from licensing and vehicle registration fees, and increases
in tax revenue from the new job opportunities that would open up to newly licensed drivers. Finally, families would not be
constantly haunted by the threat of deportation (for driving without a license or insurance); children would be relieved of
the anxiety of separation from a parent and would be more successful in school, and parents would be able to better meet the
needs of their children, e.g. driving them to school or to doctors' appointments. The report also recommends some changes
in the wording of a bill introduced in the New Jersey State Assembly (A-2135) to grant drivers' licenses to undocumented residents.
An appendix to the report contains capsule summaries of the legislation passed by the 11 states that currently permit undocumented
individuals to obtain licenses.
Undocumented No More: The Power of State Citizenship,
Stanford Law Review, August 20, 2014, 42 pp.
Author: Peter L. Markowitz
The author of this article,
a professor of law at the Benjamin N. Cardoza School of Law (Yeshiva University), played a key role in drafting a bill introduced
into the New York State legislature in June of 2014 that would grant state citizenship to qualified undocumented immigrants.
The article attempts to show that there are no constitutional reasons why states cannot broaden the boundaries of citizenship
beyond the "floor" established by the federal constitution. A movement on the part of "integrationist"
states to grant citizenship would not only "stabilize families and encourage healthy economic activity," but it
would also "reorient our national immigration discourse" and "move us closer to eventual federal reform."
According to the author, state initiatives on marriage equality and the legalization of medical marijuana are examples of
how states, acting as "policymaking laboratories," can serve as "engines that drive progressive national political
changes." The article is divided into three parts. The first part explains how the nation's federalist structure
and long-standing Supreme Court precedent "preserve a robust role for the states in controlling the parameters of their
own citizenry." Part II explains why the preemption clause of the Constitution does not bar the states from extending
citizenship to qualified undocumented immigrants, and Part III describes the benefits of broadened citizenship to local communities.
State-Based Visas: A Federalist Approach to Reforming U.S. Immigration Policy,
Cato Institute, April 23, 2014, 15 pp.
Authors: Brandon Fuller & Sean Rust
This policy paper
makes the case for a state-based visa program similar to proposals floated by Michigan Governor Rick Snyder and Kentucky
Senator Rand Paul. Such a program "would allow participating states to manage the flow and regulate the quantity of temporary
migrants who want to live and work within their borders." Visas could be renewed, and immigrants would be free to change
employers within the state and even apply for permanent residence. Such a program would direct immigration to states that
want it and away from states that don't. The report looks at two international models that, the authors believe, provide important
lessons for the U.S: The Canadian Provincial Nominee Program, established in 1998 to encourage immigrants to disperse throughout
Canada; and Australia's Regional Immigration Program, which allows states, localities, and even employers to sponsor immigrants.
According to the authors, both programs "work well." This type of program doesn't take the federal government
out of the immigration business. It would continue to set entry criteria, determine the number of state-based visas, and perform
security checks. The authors also believe that a state-based visa program "would be more equitable than existing employment-based
visas," which make it difficult for workers to leave dishonest and exploitive employers.
Living in Car Culture Without a License,
Immigration Policy Center, April 24, 2014, 5 pp.
Author: Sarah E. Hendricks
Although 11 states have
extended driver's license eligibility to undocumented immigrants, there are still millions of people who are barred from obtaining
licenses. This paper makes the case for expanding eligibility, drawing special attention to the public safety dimensions of
the issue. Noting that the United States is "one of the top motor vehicle-dependent countries in the world,"
and that the economic survival and social integration of immigrants often require access to a personal vehicle, the author
points out that licensing ensures that people are qualified to drive, that they carry insurance, and that they don't drive
without a license and thereby endanger the lives of others. Beyond these aspects of the problem, licensing also enables undocumented
immigrants, both potential business owners and employees, to make a stronger economic contribution to local communities.
Without licenses, states must contend with serious "ripple effects," including chronic poverty among undocumented
people, a narrowing of opportunity for their children, and possible escalation of gang activity. According to the author,
granting licenses is a "pragmatic step" ensuring "the well-being of communities" and "the long-term
social and economic adjustment process of immigrants and their children."
Understanding Immigration Federalism in the United States
Center for American Progress, March, 2014, 41 pp.
Authors: Karthick Ramakrishnan and Pratheepan Gulasekaram
a decade in which anti-immigrant sentiment fuelled restrictive legislation in several states, most notably Arizona's harsh
S.B. 1070 immigration enforcement law that was copied by other states, the tide has been shifting. Today, at least 13 jurisdictions
provide driver's licenses to undocumented immigrants and a growing list of states offer in-state tuition rates to all residents.
In Understanding Immigration Federalism in the United States, the authors look at the reasons behind both the anti-immigrant
and immigrant-friendly waves of legislation and find that several key factors help explain the shift. Most notably, the political
leaning of the individual states was the crucial force behind the various legislations; Republican-led states were more likely
to embrace restrictive laws while innovations like identification cards for undocumented immigrants are offered in solely
Democratic-controlled cities. The Supreme Court decision that struck down a key S.B. 1070 provision as well as President Barack
Obama's Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals executive action prompted states to fall in line and to reexamine their directions
of their laws. And an increasingly important factor is the growth of the Latino electorate, which is gradually gaining influence
on political decisions. The authors suggest that, in place of stalled comprehensive immigration reform at the federal level,
states will continue this trend of taking the lead on immigrant-friendly policy. (Denzil Mohammed)
2013 Immigration Report,
National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL), January 20, 2014, 8 pp.
This report is NCSL's annual
review of state legislative activity on immigration-related issues. NCSL notes a major change in focus from an emphasis
on law enforcement in previous years to some expansion of benefits in 2013. Overall, there was an increase of 18 percent in
enacted legislation in 2013, with 184 laws passed in 2013 compared to 156 in 2012. Eight states - California, Colorado, Connecticut,
Illinois, Maryland, Nevada, Oregon and Vermont - joined New Mexico, Utah and Washington in extending driver's license eligibility
to undocumented immigrants. Four states - Colorado, Minnesota, New Jersey and Oregon - provided in-state college tuition
for qualified undocumented immigrant students, bringing to 15 the total number of states that allow this practice. The
report includes a table enumerating immigration-related legislation passed over a three year period (2011-2013) in each of
the following categories: budgets, education, employment, health, human trafficking, ID/driver's licenses and other licenses,
law enforcement, miscellaneous, omnibus measures, public benefits, and voting. The report also provides details about
the 2013 legislation.
2013 Immigration Report,
National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL), September 6, 2013, 10 pp.
The number of immigration-related
laws and resolutions passed in the states increased 83% in the first half of 2013 compared to the same period last year. According
to this report by the bipartisan National Conference of State Legislature's Immigrant Policy Project, the top issues occupying
the attention of state legislators were eligibility for state-issued driver's licenses and identification cards, and resolutions
recognizing the contributions of immigrants. Other laws dealt with seasonal workers, refugees and undocumented immigrants.
While NCSL does not suggest a reason for the spike in legislative activity, the report notes that it coincides with the implementation
of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program and the Supreme Court's Arizona v. United States ruling. The report
also calls attention to diverging legislative paths depending on whether Republicans or Democrats control the state legislature.
Republican-controlled legislatures in states like Indiana, Virginia and Florida were more likely to restrict access to driver's
licenses, in-state tuition, health benefits and jobs. Democratic-controlled legislatures in states like Colorado, Maryland
and Oregon were more likely to expand such access. Despite this increase in state-level action, the report notes that 25 resolutions
entreated the federal government to pass immigration reform. (Denzil Mohammed)
Inclusive Policies Advance Dramatically in the States: Immigrants' Access to Driver's Licenses, Higher
Education, Workers' Rights and Community Policing,
National Immigration Law Center (NILC), August, 2013, 20 pp.
In this report, NILC provides a detailed
summary of 2013 state legislative and executive action "designed to integrate immigrants more fully into their communities."
The report notes that restrictive legislation was "markedly absent," with only one state (Georgia) enacting a law
mandating the use of "secure and verifiable" identity documents. By contrast, seven states and Puerto Rico
joined three existing states in providing access to driver's licenses regardless of immigration status; five states joined
13 existing states in adopting laws or policies providing tuition relief to qualified undocumented students; and the State
of Hawaii joined New York in passing a Domestic Workers' Bill of Rights. Beyond these developments, NILC also reports on pending
pro-immigrant legislative activity, e.g. bills under consideration in California, Illinois, Massachusetts, and Oregon to extend
workplace protections to domestic workers, and "tuition equity" bills in Virginia, Arkansas, Pennsylvania, and New
Jersey. The report also reviews state and local efforts to limit police involvement in immigration law enforcement. NILC concludes
that "this year's pro-immigrant legislative and administrative victories reflect a shift in attitude across much of the
Immigration is Changing the Political Landscape in Key States,
Center for American Progress, April 8, 2013, 12 pp.
Authors: Philip E. Wolgin & Ann Garcia
In this issue brief, the authors discuss how immigration, and specifically the growing importance of the Latino electorate,
are altering the political balance in key states. In California, Colorado, Florida, Nevada, and Virginia, Republican-sponsored,
anti-immigrant measures and/or harsh campaign rhetoric have moved those states into the Democratic column. The authors suggest
that continued growth in the Latino and immigrant electorate, even in reliably red states such as Arizona, North Carolina,
Georgia, and Texas, will tilt the political balance even further, unless Republicans support immigration reform and pay attention
to an increasingly diverse electorate.
Examining Maryland's Views on Immigrants and Immigration,
University of Baltimore Law Forum, 33 pp.
Author: Elizabeth Keyes
This paper finds that Maryland's
response to immigration has been both complex and contradictory. While the state eventually passed legislation granting in-state
tuition to undocumented high school students (by referendum in 2012) and continues to attract high-skilled immigrant workers in health care and technology,
jurisdiction-by-jurisdiction enforcement of immigration law varies widely. The geographic split mirrors divisions that existed
in the state over the issue of slavery in the 19th century. Frederick County, for example, uses local police
to enforce immigration law and participates in the federal government‘s 287(g) partnership, while the City of Baltimore
refrains from such cooperation and actively works to attract immigrants. This paper examines Maryland's "split personality"
on immigration against the backdrop of federal actions and inactions. In the absence of federal immigration reform, the state's
divergent policy reactions fail to resolve "the federal-level contradictions but simply shifts their playing field."
The author concludes that congressional paralysis on immigration "has inexcusably moved a contentious political conversation
to a level of government with no authority to address its real substance." Maryland's inability to find uniform solutions
to the challenges of immigration offers a cautionary tale making it all the more essential that the federal government create
a more sustainable and rational immigration policy. (Denzil Mohammed)
Restrictive State and Local Immigration Laws: Solutions in Search of Problems,
American Constitution Society for Law and Policy, Issue Brief,
November, 2012, 18 pp.
Gulasekaram & S. Karthick Ramakrishnan
This study challenges the assumption that restrictive state and local
immigration ordinances are driven by demographic and other changes on the state and local level, e.g. growth of the immigrant
(especially undocumented) population, and the "failure" of the federal government to combat the problem. One of
the better-known proponents of this view, according to the authors, was Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia, who wrote in
his dissent to the 2012 Arizona v. United States decision that "Arizona bears the brunt of the country's illegal
immigration problem..." Reinforcing the pervasiveness of this view has been the emphasis on "new destinations"
in the immigration narrative, which suggests that local communities without a recent migration history have been overwhelmed
by the arrival of new immigrants. Through the authors' study of over 25,000 local jurisdictions in all 50 states, they found
that the demographic explanation had "no predictive power." Indeed, "what most subfederal jurisdictions
with immigration enforcement laws share is not economic stress or overconsumption of public goods or heightened violent crime,
but rather a partisan composition within their legislative and executive branches that is highly receptive to enforcement
heavy proposals." Cities in Republican-majority areas are four times more likely to pass restrictive ordinances,
whereas cities with Democratic majorities are four times more likely to pass pro-immigrant measures. Fearful of antagonizing
Republican primary voters who "care intensely about immigration," elected Republican officials are either voted
out by more conservative challengers or embrace restrictive positions. At the same time, "restrictive issue entrepreneurs,"
such as the leaders of FAIR and NumbersUSA "purposefully promote legislative gridlock at the federal level, and then
cite the very national legislative inaction they helped foment to justify restrictive solutions at the local level."
The authors also take issue with Professor Peter Spiro's "steam-valve" theory, which posits that the passage of
local restrictive ordinances relieves pressure on the federal government to pass similar legislation. Finally, they
predict that these political dynamics, despite the results of the 2012 presidential election, will make national legislative
change "difficult to achieve" and even if national immigration reform passes, anti-immigrant politicians may
continue to proliferate restrictive legislation on the local level as a way of holding on to power.
The Partisan Fallout from Arizona's Immigration Battle: Applying Lessons from California,
Binghamton University & Boise State University, September, 2012, 33 pp.
This study seeks to predict
the political future of Arizona after passage of SB 1070, a law aimed at identifying, prosecuting and deporting undocumented
immigrants, most of whom are from Mexico. Critics of the law have argued that both documented and undocumented Latino residents
would be subject to racial profiling. Sixteen years earlier, voters in California supported Proposition 187, a referendum
that sought to deny government services, such as public education and health care, to undocumented immigrants, primarily Latinos.
According to the authors, "the memories of Prop 187 were long lasting for many Latinos who came of age and became politically
active during this time period." California Latinos shifted toward the Democratic Party "and have never shifted
back." As a result, this episode has decisively altered the political landscape of the state. The authors note that "half
of Arizona's Latino citizens are 18 or under" suggesting a significant demographic shift in the state's electorate "just
as immigration politics are boiling over." The likely consequence of SB 1070, therefore, will be to end longstanding
Republican dominance in Arizona "as early as 2020." (Denzil Mohammed)
The Economic Case against Arizona's Immigration Laws,
Cato Institute, September 25, 2012, 20 pp.
This study examines the social, demographic and economic
effects of Arizona's immigration laws, specifically the Legal Arizona Workers Act of 2007 (LAWA) and SB 1070 law of 2010.
The author contends that such stringent immigration laws have hurt Arizona's economy and that this unforeseen result should
be weighed by other states mulling the possibility of mimicking Arizona's laws. Both the LAWA and SB 1070 focus on curbing
a rise in illegal immigration to the state. LAWA mandates the use of E-Verify, which checks the status of employees, and revokes
business licenses for employers who hire unauthorized workers. SB 1070 authorizes local police to enforce immigration laws.
The author uses data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census and Federal Trade Commission to probe the effects of these
laws. The E-Verify system has proven to be a regulatory obstacle for businesses. The threat of license revocation burdened
business-owners with costly employee verification hurdles. Employers scaled back legal hiring, moved out of Arizona or turned
to the informal economy. The effects of SB 1070 were to drive some unauthorized immigrants from the state thereby lowering
Arizona's population, restricting the labor market, accelerating residential property price declines and exacerbating "the
Great Recession in Arizona." (Denzil Mohammed)
The States of Immigration,
William & Mary Law Review, June 14, 2012, 54 pp.
In seeking to understand the recent "avalanche
of state activity" on immigration-related issues, the author of this paper argues that state policy-making, both laws
seeking stricter enforcement of immigration laws, e.g. Arizona SB 1070, and laws seeking leniency, e.g. in-state tuition laws,
are examples of what the author calls "venue-shifting," i.e. attempts to influence the outcome of federal policy
debates by incubating policy initiatives at the state and local level. The traditional view of state policymaking is that
the states serve as policy laboratories or that they tailor policy to local circumstances. However, through the long
course of American history, state initiatives in immigration have been rarely enforced. "They are either enjoined or
struck down, or they are not prioritized." The author discusses two case examples to support his argument: state
legislative activity leading up to the passage of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 and the Illegal Immigration
and Immigrant Responsibilities Act of 1996. State activity preceding passage of these acts "became the baseline for the
federal laws that followed." He concludes that "state laws cannot always be taken at face value; sometimes
their most important function is as a means of shaping policy at the federal (or local) level."
A History and Analysis of Recent Immigrant Integration Initiatives in Five States,
Diversity Dynamics, 2012, 35 pp.
During a three-year period from 2005 to 2008, governors in five
states (Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Washington) issues executive orders launching ambitious projects
to integrate immigrants into the economic, civic, and social life of their states. This study examines the genesis of these
projects, their goals, methodology, and outcomes. The study includes an analysis of the strengths and "vulnerabilities"
of these projects and concludes with a series of recommendations to ensure that such projects are not "shipwrecked by
the emotionally charged politics surrounding immigration." In preparing this study, the author Dr. Nicholas V. Montalto,
reviewed the extant literature and interviewed key informants in the five states. This study is based on a paper presented
at the International Metropolis Conference in The Hague in 2010.
The Myth of Self-Deportation: How Behavioral Economics Reveals the Fallacies behind "Attrition
Immigrant Policy Center, April, 2012, 10 pp.
This report cites research findings from cognitive
psychology and behavioral economic that cast doubt on the validity of the "attrition through enforcement"
philosophy, which predicts that undocumented immigrants will "self-deport" to their home countries if sufficient
enforcement pressure is applied on the state and local levels. In states and localities where such enforcement has been
tried, there is a dearth of hard evidence that self-deportation actually occurs. According to the author Alexandra Filindra,
"expected utility theory" from classical economics fails to explain the behavior of unauthorized immigrants, who
"hate to lose a lot more than they like to win." So that even if you pile up potential losses in the future,
resulting from the greater risk of incarceration, deportation and loss of livelihood, immigrants are unwilling to sacrifice
their past gains, including the jobs they have , the homes they may own, the networks they have developed, and the children
who have been raised and educated in the U.S. The author concludes that "laws such as those of Arizona and Alabama...will
lead to the development of a racialized, marginalized caste of people with no rights - a shameful development for a country
that prides itself on its democratic and inclusive institutions."
A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the New Alabama Immigration Law,
University of Alabama, January, 2012, 9 pp.
This study seeks to determine whether the benefits of the
2011 Alabama law on immigration -- the Beason-Hammon Alabama Taxpayer and Citizen Protection Act -- are worth its costs.
The author discusses four types of potential benefits including (a) saving funds used to provide public benefits to unauthorized
immigrants, (b) increased safety for citizens and legal residents, (c) more business, employment, and education opportunities,
and (d) ensuring the integrity of various governmental programs. These factors are analyzed against potential costs
including (a) implementation, enforcement, and litigation expenses, (b) increased costs and inconveniences for citizens, other
legal residents, and businesses, (c) fewer economic development opportunities, and (d) the economic impact of reduced aggregate
demand due to population loss. The analysis suggests that anticipated benefits across all four categories are minor
compared to projected costs, and that many of the benefits may not even be realized. The author gives special consideration
to the impact of reduced aggregate demand, as aggregate demand serves as the basis for economic growth. For FY 2012,
the author gives high-end estimates of $5.8 billion dollar loss in individual earnings, $10.8 billion dollar loss in state
Gross Domestic Product, $264.5 million dollar loss in state income and sales taxes, and $93.1 million dollar loss in local
sales tax. Although "the law is well-intentioned," the reduction in aggregate demand alone seems to negate
the potential benefits of the law. (Patricia Lundgren)
One Year Later: A Look at SB 1070 and Copycat Legislation,
National Council of La Raza, April 18, 2011, 15 pp.
Since Arizona SB 1070 was signed into law on April
23, 2010, attempts to pass similar legislation in many states appear to have stalled. This report analyzes the forces
that have slowed the advance of this type of legislation. So far in 2011, eleven of 24 states considering copycat legislation
have defeated such bills or denied them consideration. In several states, cost factors seemed to have weighed heavily
on legislators' minds. In Kentucky, for example, the Kentucky Legislative Research Commission issued a fiscal impact statement
estimating the cost of implementation at $89 million per year. In other states, the business community exerted pressure on
state legislators, contending that key industries, such as agriculture in Georgia and ranching in Utah, would lose workers
and suffer huge losses.
Lessons from the 2007 Legal Arizona Workers Act,
Public Policy Institute of California, March, 2011,
2007, Arizona passed the legal Arizona Worker Act (LAWA), which requires employers to use E-Verify, a national identity and
work authorization verification system. This study examines the labor market impacts of this law, through comparisons with
neighboring states without such legislation. The study attempts to control for the impact of the recession. The researchers
find that the law had both intended and unintended consequences. On the one hand, it reduced the number of unauthorized workers
in the state by about 92,000, or 17% - the stated goal of the legislation. On the other, it increased the self-employment
rate by about 8%, or a "LAWA-induced increase" of roughly 25,000 self-employed Hispanic non-citizens - the demographic
group with the largest numbers of unauthorized workers. These "findings raise questions about the unintended effect of
LAWA in expanding underground economies." The authors speculate that an E-Verify mandate for the entire country -- reducing
options for interstate migration -- would lead not only to reduced illegal migration into the country and increased emigration,
but also to a marked shift toward less formal employment.
Annual Report to the People of New Jersey,
New Jersey Commission on New Americans, December, 2010, 10 pp.
by executive order on January 12, 2010, the New Jersey Commission on New Americans is obligated to report annually to the
governor and legislature. This is the first report of the Commission. Each of the Commissions four committees: education,
labor and workforce development, social services and health care, and immigrant integration, were asked to make recommendations
that could be implemented at "no cost or low cost." The report concludes with seven major recommendations,
two of which pertain to the role of One-Stop Career Centers in New Jersey.
A Case Study of Color-Blindness: The Racially Disparate Impacts of Arizona's SB 1070 and
the Failure of Comprehensive Immigration Reform,
University of California, Davis, Legal Studies Research Paper Series, October, 2010, 42 pp.
This paper argues
that the use of "race-neutral" language in the immigration debate, i.e. terms like "illegal alien" and
"what part of illegal do you not understand?" cloaks the racist intent, or at the very least "disparate racial
impact," of measures like Arizona SB 1070. As it is no longer socially acceptable in the United States to voice overtly
racist views, the "coded" discourse on immigration advances the same racist agenda and explains the passion and
vitriol that surround the immigration issue. "One might even view the enforcement of the U.S. immigration laws as a facially
neutral - and thus presumably legal and legitimate - form of racial discrimination." The author also comments on
the racial impact of the failure of comprehensive immigration reform over the last decade. Inaction on federal immigration
legislation allows for "the maintenance of a racial caste of undocumented immigrants...denied the fundamental protections
available to other workers under federal labor, and...subject to continued exploitation in the workplace."
Rising to the Immigrant Integration Challenge: What States are Doing - and Can Do,
National Governors Association (NGA), Center for Best Practices, November 4, 2009, 19 pp
Noting that many governors are beginning to realize "that states can facilitate successful (immigrant)
integration" and thereby bring about "tremendous economic and social benefit" to their states," this report
reviews some recent steps that states have taken to pursue this goal, including innovations in cross-departmental leadership,
workforce development, entrepreneurship, and English and citizenship education. The report concludes with some specific strategies
that seem to hold the greatest promise of success, including: raising the visibility of immigrant integration as an issue;
gathering good data to inform policy development; maximizing partnerships with local government, nonprofits, and the private
sector; facilitating government access and collaboration; and designing an effective communication strategy.
A Plan for Today, A Plan for Tomorrow: Building a Stronger Washington through Immigrant Integration
A Year One Report from the Washington New Americans Policy Council, October,
2009, 48 pp.
Established through an executive order issued by Governor Christine O. Gregoire
in February of 2008, the 15-member Washington New Americans Policy Council was charged with developing policy recommendations
on issues such as citizenship promotion, English language acquisition, and skill recertification. This report
summarizes the Council's nine key recommendations, which include a three-year "We Want to Learn English" campaign;
public funding and employer incentives to promote naturalization; strategies to provide "one stop" information to
immigrants; issuance of a language access executive order requiring all state agencies to assess their effectiveness in reaching
and serving language minorities, with oversight and technical assistance provided by an Office of Language Access; strategies
for career re-entry for immigrant and refugee professionals, including a review of licensing board procedures; trust-building
measures with law enforcement agencies; and public celebrations of immigrant contributions to the state. A final recommendation
asks the Governor to continue the Policy Council for at least one more year "to work with state agencies to implement
year one srecommendation" and to address other important issues which the Council did not have sufficient time to consider.
Massachusetts New Americans Agenda,
The Governor's Advisory Council for Refugees and Immigrants (GACRI), October
1, 2009, 54 pp.
Made up of 30 people representing 11 state agencies and 19 community groups or constituencies,
GACRI was created by executive order of Governor Deval Patrick on July 9, 2008 and charged with developing "a comprehensive
and strategic statewide approach to successfully integrate (the state's) immigrant and refugee populations..."
The New Americans Agenda contains 131 recommendations in 12 topical areas: civil rights, adult English language proficiency,
economic development, education, public safety, employment and workforce development, access to state services, citizenship
assistance, health, refugees, youth, and housing and community development. The publication of the Agenda constitutes
the "first phase" of an expected, long-term process of state government reform. Upon receipt of the Agenda, the
Governor appointed a special 15-member interagency work group to develop implementation plans within 90 days. Coordination
and support for plan implementation will be provided by the Massachusetts Office for Refugees and Immigrants (MORI).
A Fresh Start: Renewing Immigrant Integration for a Stronger Maryland,
The Report of the Maryland Council for New Americans, August, 2009, 65 pp
In December of 2008, the Governor of Maryland created by executive
order the Maryland Council for New Americans and charged it with producing a report that would "review and recommend
new policies and practices to expedite immigrant integration into the economic and civic life of the State." The Council's
report contains 15 "general recommendation" in four broad areas: workforce, citizenship, financial services, and
governmental access. A series of "best practice" vignettes are scattered throughout the document. The Council considers
its "primary recommendation" to be the establishment of a Cabinet-level Office for New Americans "empowered
to oversee implementation of reform and compliance in coordination with the Governor's priorities."
Report to New Jersey Governor Jon S. Corzine,
The Governor's Blue Ribbon Advisory Panel on Immigrant Policy,
March, 2009, 119 pp.
On August 6, 2007,
New Jersey Governor Jon Corzine signed an executive order creating a Blue Ribbon Advisory Panel on Immigrant Policy charged
with making "recommendations for a comprehensive and strategic statewide approach to successfully integrate the rapidly
growing immigrant population in New Jersey." Over the course of 18 months, the panel, consisting of 34 members (seven
representatives of state departments, 25 public members, and two legislators) studied a broad range of issues, considered
testimony at three public hearings, and produced a report with 98 recommendations in four broad topical areas: social services,
labor and workforce issues, education, and state and local government. The panel also published an executive summary and appendices in separate files.
The appendices are more than 300 pages in length and include a study on in-state tuition for undocumented immigrants
and a proposal for the creation of a Governor's Commission on New Americans. In addition, transcripts of the testimony delivered at the three public
hearings are available on the web site of the New Jersey Department of the Public Advocate.
In 2004, the Portuguese government opened two "National Immigrant Support
Centers," in the cities of Lisbon and Porto, in an effort to implement a "one-stop-shop," or "welcome
center" approach to immigrant integration. In 2007, the European Commission funded the development of an international
network to assess the Portuguese model and "to examine the feasibility of its implementation in other EU member states."
This Handbook presents the results of this study. In general, the handbook speaks glowingly of the model, although acknowledging
the need to adapt it to local circumstances. The report covers such issues as the out-stationing of government employees at
the centers, the role of "cultural mediators" and immigrant organizations in center operations, and the financial
and human resources necessary for implementation.
Final Report, Governor's Commission on Immigration,
State of Virginia, January, 2009, 26 pp + appendices.
Created in 2007 by the Virginia Assembly, the 20-member Virginia Commission on
Immigration was charged with examining the impact of immigration on the state educational system, health care, law enforcement,
service accessibility, and the economy. The Commission's final report contains 24 recommendations, half of which are directed
to the federal government and half to state government. Among the state government recommendations are: shortening the Medicaid
eligibility requirement for legal immigrants, charging in-state tuition for the children of undocumented immigrants, establishing
an "office of immigrant assistance services," and developing a comprehensive state plan "to address the needs
of the foreign-born population in a consistent/uniform manner."
to the Governor and Maryland General Assembly, January 1, 2009, 56 pp.
Created by the Governor of Maryland in 2008 and motivated by the belief that the preservation of immigrant languages
will "maintain America's competitive edge in such vital sectors as trade and national security," this task force
presented a series of nine "feasible and cost-effective" recommendations to preserve and develop the language skills
of Maryland's residents. Among the recommendations were: the awarding of high school credit by exam for students who attend
non-public heritage schools, the enhancement of library collections of children's literature in heritage languages, and the
development of more dual language programs in the public schools. This task force may be the first state-sponsosred task force
on heritage languages ever established in the United States.
State Laws Related to Immigrants and Immigration in 2008,
National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL), Immigrant Policy
Project, January, 2009, 32 pp.
NCSL conducts an annual
inventory of state legislation addressing immigration issues. With 1305 pieces of legislation introduced in 2008, of which
206 were enacted in 41 states, the 2008 inventory found a small reduction in the level of activity compared to 2007. Although
some states continue to be focused on punitive approaches, e.g. imposing sanctions on employers who hire unauthorized workers
and/or mandating that employers participate in the E-Verify program (Mississippi, Virginia), other states are adopting integrative
approaches, including a California law to use monetary fines imposed upon perpetrators of domestic violence to fund domestic
violence prevention programs in immigrant communities, a Connecticut law creating an Asian Pacific American Affairs Commission
to develop new programs promoting service access, a Maryland law creating a Task Force on the Preservation of Heritage Language
Skills, a Missouri law providing funding for naturalization assistance, and an Ohio act creating an African immigrants Commission.
The Anti-Immigrant Movement that Failed:
Positive Integration Policies by State Government Still Far Outweigh
Punitive Policies Aimed at New Immigrants,
Progressive States Network, Sept., 2008, 24 pp.
Using a six category system to rank states from "punitive"
to "integrative" in their policies towards immigrants, this report finds that integrative state policies are much
more common than media coverage would suggest. Seven states are classified as "integrative," and ten, including
New Jersey, as "somewhat integrative." The report features a state-by-state policy assessment.
For the Benefit of All: Strategic Recommendations to Enhance
the State's Role in the Integration of Immigrants in Illinois,
Report of the New Americans Policy Council, Year Two, June, 2008, 34
On November 19, 2005, Illinois Governor Rod
Blagojevich signed the new Americans Executive Order, an attempt to adopt a coherent, strategic, and proactive state government
approach to integrate the rapidly growing immigrant population of Illinois. The Executive Order created a New Americans Policy
Council comprised of prominent Illinois business, faith, labor, community, philanthropic and governmental leaders. This report,
covering the issues of housing, police-community relations, and economic development/entrepreneurship, is the second
and final report of the Council.
Managing Diversity in Corporate America: An Exploratory
The Rand Corporation, 2008, 26 pp.
This paper challenges the "cookbook" approach to diversity management and argues that the benefits of diversity
will be realized only when corporate leaders address the larger issue of organizational change. The paper has implications
for state and local officials seeking to create more inclusive and effective governmental administrations. As an engine of
diversity, immigration should be seen as part of the context in which modern organizations, both public and private, operate.
Selected Testimony to the New Jersey Governor's Blue Ribbon
Advisory Panel on Immigrant Policy,
2008, 15 pp.
Formed by executive order in August, 2007, the panel is charged with developing recommendations for a comprehensive
and strategic statewide approach to successfully integrate New Jersey's rapidly growing immigrant population, including consideration
of such issues as: civil rights, citizenship status, education, employment/workforce training, fair housing, healthcare, language
proficiency and other key areas as identified by the Panel.
State Immigration Project: Policy Options for 2008,
Progressive States Network, December, 2007, 23 pp.
Seeking to mobilize "forward-thinking state policymakers, legislative staff,
and non-profit organizations," to achieve attainable reform in the immigration arena, the Progressive States Network
developed this platform for common action on the state level. The platform includes four major elements: strengthening
wage law enforcement, promoting naturalization and other integration policies, designing smart policing policies, and counteracting
misinformation about unauthorized voting and the use of public benefits by undocumented immigrants.
Pro-Immigrant Measures Available to State or Local Governments:
A Quick Menu of Affirmative Ideas,
Immigration Law Center, September, 2007, 6 pp.
is a list of 71 policy recommendations designed to "more effective incorporate immigrants into their communities."
Many of them have been successfully implemented in communities around the country.
For the Benefit of All: Strategic Recommendations to Enhance
the State's Role in the Integration of Immigrants in Illinois,
Report of the New Americans Policy Council, Year One, December, 2006,
On November 19, 2005, Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich
signed the new Americans Executive Order, an attempt to adopt a coherent, strategic, and proactive state government approach
to integrate the rapidly growing immigrant population of Illinois. The Executive Order created a New Americans Policy Council
comprised of prominent Illinois business, faith, labor, community, philanthropic and governmental leaders. This report, covering
the issues of citizenship, education, human services and health care, is the first report of the Council.
Integration: Improving Policy for Education, Health
and Human Services for Illinois' Immigrants and Refugees,
New Americans Interagency Task Force Report, December, 2006,
42 pp. (INACTIVE LINK)
This report summarizes recommendations developed by an Interagency Task Force convened
by the Office of New Americans Policy and Advocacy in the State of Illinois. The Task Force developed seven recommendations
to enable immigrants to access services, contribute to their communities and enhance their lives and the lives of those around
Out of the Many, One: Integrating Immigrants in New
National Immigration Forum, 2006, 64 pp.
Produced by Diversity Dynamics in collaboration with the New Jersey Immigration
Policy Network, this report constitutes a blueprint for a comprehensive immigrant integration agenda in the State of New Jersey.
It contains 51 recommendations and covers topics as wide-ranging as education, training and employment, health care,
language access, police-community relations, and immigrant civic participation.
Acclimation of Virginia's Foreign-Born Population,
Report of the Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission, Commonwealth
of Virginia, 2004, 104 pp + appendices
This is a comprehensive
report on Virginia's foreign-born population with special attention to best practices and opportunities for state and local
initiatives to promote immigrant integration. Commission staff found that the state's immigrants have three primary needs:
access to English learning opportunities, access to information and services in native languages, and access to affordable
Latinos and the State of New Jersey: A promising
Partnership for a Better Future,
Hispanic Advisory Council, 2003 Policy Report, Submitted to Governor
James E. McGreevey, October 27, 2003, 31 pp.
to a governor's executive order, a 14-member council was established to provide guidance to the administration in serving
New Jersey's burgeoning Latino population. Three sub-committees (economic development, education, and health) produced a series
of recommendation for consideration by the state.
We the People: Helping Newcomers Become Californians,
State of California, Little Hoover Commission, June, 2002, 92 pp.
A bipartisan, independent state body, the Little
Hoover Commission called for a "coherent strategy for accelerating the integration of immigrants into the economy and
their communities." Recognizing the challenge presented by the state's 2 million undocumented immigrants, the commission's
report moves beyond the distinction between legal and illegal immigration, and in its place, introduces the more practical
distinction between responsible and irresponsible community members. The report then goes on to outline the responsibilities
of immigrants to the larger community, and the responsibilities of the larger community towards immigrants.
News and Opinion
Immigrants and State Government
For States, Inclusive Approach to Unauthorized Immigrants Can Help Build Better Economies,
Erica Williams et al, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, October 29, 2015
State Immigration Policy Offices: 3 Takeaways,
Immigration and the States Project, The Pew Charitable Trusts, September
Bruce Rauner's immigration message leaves advocates
Chicago Sun-Times, March 22, 2015
Immigrants' chances tied to their state's policies
Press, November 28, 2014
The Boston Globe, July 22, 2010
Times of Trenton, January 23, 2010
Aug. 22, 2008