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RESOURCES IN THE FIELD OF IMMIGRANT EDUCATION
(PreK - 12) 
Arranged in order of publication date with the most recent on top. Scroll down for all entries. Selection does not necessarily imply endorsement of findings or research methodology by Diversity Dynamics and its partner organizations.We regret that we may not be able to repair broken links promptly.
Educational success is important for the children of immigrants, whether born in this country or overseas. Immigrant children now constute 23% of all children under the age of 18 in the United States, and 32% in New Jersey (Urban Institute, 2011)  Many do not speak English well, have low-educated parents, and live in impoverished circumstances. Navigating the old world and the new, immigrant children present a unique set of challenges and strengths to educators, who have developed special knowledge, skills, and techniques to address their needs. Clearly, the schools are an important setting in the work of immigrant integration. Here are some studies shedding important light on this issue.

Facts about English Learners and the NCLB/ESSA Transition in Select States,
Migration Policy Institute, March 2017.
Authors: Julie Sugarman & Kevin Lee
Using U.S. Census Bureau and state administrative data, MPI has produced a set of state fact sheets looking at the demographics of the native-born and immigrant student populations in the U.S., including number of English Learners (ELs), their home languages, distribution by urban area, and educational outcomes as measured by standardized tests. There are 13 states covered in the fact sheets, including the 10 states with the largest EL enrollments. The Fact Sheets also provide a brief overview of the accountability mechanisms used by each state to assess EL student outcomes.  The Fact Sheets, along with a website on the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), enacted by Congress in December, 1915, are designed to help community organizations policymakers and others understand the new ESL policies incorporated into ESSA.

The Learner's Own Language
Explorations in English Language and Linguistics, 3:1 (2015), 7 pp.
Author: Philip Kerr
The learner's own language (often referred to as "L1") has been neglected as a resource in the learning of English, and in some contexts, has been banned altogether. The author of this paper finds scant support in the research literature for the exclusion of L1 in the classroom. He finds the four main arguments for the exclusion of L1, e.g. discouraging learners to think in English, to be flawed. Rather than debating whether use of L1 is a "good thing" or a "bad thing," it would be better to discuss "how" and "how often" L1 should be used. In this regard, he offers some practical suggestions for how teachers have effectively used L1 in helping students learn English.

Funding an Equitable Education for English Learners in the United States,
Migration Policy Institute, August, 2016, 50 pp.
Author: Julie Sugarman
English learners make up nearly 10 percent of the U.S. student population. Schools must spend more money to educate these students, and there is targeted funding from the federal, state, and local governments for programs to educate English learners. This paper explains the funding streams available to provide specialized educational services to these students. There are many variables that influence the amount of funding schools receive for teaching English learners-disparities in the wealth of school districts, methodologies in determining costs, political considerations based on available funding rather than on producing the best outcomes, the type of program used to teach English learners, the concentration of English learners in particular schools, the assignment of more experienced teachers within school districts, the characteristics of individual English learners (prior schooling, level of prior English proficiency, etc.), and many others. The author makes a set of recommendations to make the level of funding more appropriate to meet the needs of English learners. Her suggestions include: expanding research on the cost of educating English learners and the variables affecting those costs; additional research on the cost of educating English learners in schools where there is a low number of such students; additional research on effective monitoring and evaluation practices; more data collection at the state level; better training of all stakeholders involved in funding decisions at the local level; changes to funding formulas so that subpopulations of English learners are weighted differently based on need; reconsideration of arbitrary caps on the length of time schools may keep English learners in special programs; set aside funding for emergencies-such as an unexpected influx of English learners who may enter the school system after budget allocations for a particular year have been set. (Maurice Belanger, Maurice Belanger Associates)

Dual Language Learners in Head Start: The Promises and Pitfalls of New Reforms,
Migration Policy Institute, September 8, 2016, 8 pp.
Author: Keith McNamara
This article discusses the importance of Head Start in meeting the needs of immigrant children, particularly those who are dual language learners (DLLs). Originally launched as part of President Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty, the program has served more than 33 million children to date. Of the nearly one million children enrolled in Head Start in 2015, about one-third (320,000) speak a language other than English at home. According to the author, more than 86 percent of the 1,700 public, private, and nonprofit agencies providing Head Start services are grappling with the challenge of serving immigrant children. The author discusses the implication of recent policy changes designed to improve the quality of early childhood and Head Start programs. Although new regulations recognize bilingualism as a strength, require culturally and linguistically adapted screening and assessment tools, and urge programs to engage with families and communities, they fall short in defaulting to state and local Quality Rating and Improvement Systems, which by and large, fail to take into consideration the unique needs of DLLs. The author also notes the "dearth of research on DLL-specific best practices," including, for example, effective techniques for managing multilingual classrooms. "As DLLs are the fastest growing segment in preK programs, commensurate attention to their unique needs is imperative if educational services are to serve all children equitably."

Young Children of Refugees in the United States: Integration Successes and Challenges,
Migration Policy Institute, March, 2016, 40 pp.
Authors:  Kate Hopper, Jie Zing, Randy Capps, & Michael Fix
The authors of this study conclude that the 941,000 children ages 10 and younger with refugee parents living in the U.S. during the 2009-2013 period "fare better than children of other immigrants on almost all indicators" and also compare favorably with children with U.S. born parents on several indicators. The report begins by reviewing the U.S. refugee resettlement process and describing the socioeconomic and educational characteristics of arriving refugees, including English proficiency levels and exposure to refugee camps prior to resettlement. The authors then examine the risk and protective factors for refugee children. One major risk factor is the potentially harmful effects of linguistically isolated households, i.e. where no household member age 14 and older speaks English. Thirty-one (31) percent of refugee children live in such households, with substantial variations by nationality, e.g. 81 percent for Burmese and 45 percent for Iraqis. A key protective factor, according to the report, is the greater likelihood that refugee children will live in two-parent families (81 percent), compared to 62 percent of children of U.S. born parents. The authors then analyze a number of key variables, such as family poverty level; use of public benefits, such as the food stamp program, cash assistance, and SSI; health insurance coverage; and housing conditions. The authors speculate that one reason why refugee children "are, in the main, integrating successfully and achieving self-sufficiency" is refugee eligibility for resettlement services, which help to ease the adjustment to life in America. Funded by the Foundation for Child Development, this report was prepared for a research symposium on young children in refugee families held on February 25, 2015.

Providing a Head Start: Improving Access to Early Childhood Education for Refugees,
Migration Policy Institute, March, 2016
Authors: Lyn Morland, Nicole Ives, Clea McNeely, and Chenoa Allen
Access to quality early childhood education and care (ECEC) provides substantial short- and long-term benefits to refugee children, but children of refugees are less likely than children of U.S.-born parents to participate in ECEC programs. In searching for a solution to this problem , the authors of this study collected enrollment data and conducted interviews and focus groups from two sites where refugee resettlement and Head Start programs agreed to collaborate:  Syracuse in Onondaga County, NY, and Phoenix in Maricopa County, AZ. Enrollment of refugee children in Head Start programs increased faster in the two sites than the national rate of enrollment or the rate of refugee settlement in both counties, especially in Onondaga County where enrollment increased 500 percent despite declining refugee arrivals. Factors that facilitated the collaborative process included partners committing to shared goals, sharing resources and contact information and firmly understanding both refugee families' needs and the needs of Head Start teachers and staff. The report suggests that the collaborative approaches used by the Head Start program and resettlement agencies in the studied sites can inform initiatives at the federal, state and local levels to improve ECEC access for refugee and other immigrant populations. The report concludes with specific recommendations to promote such collaboration. (Sophia Mitrokostas for The Immigrant Learning Center Public Education Institute)

 

Fulfilling the Promise of Preschool in Silicon Valley:  Examining Participation Patterns and Barriers to Access among Low-Income Children and Low-Income Children of Immigrants,
Urban Institute, January, 2016, 13 pp.
Authors: Gina Adams et al
In Silicon Valley, California, fewer low-income children are enrolled in preschool than higher-income children. Among 3-year olds, for example, 26 percent of low-income children are enrolled, compared to 52 percent of higher-income children in this age cohort. As nearly three-quarters of low-income children have an immigrant parent, and three out of five have parents with limited English proficiency, the problem of low enrollment in Silicon Valley has important immigrant dimensions.  This report synthesizes two studies by The Urban Institute on the barriers to preschool participation among low-income and immigrant children in Silicon Valley. The first study uses American Community Survey data to reveal preschool enrollment patterns and the socio-economic characteristics of low-income immigrant families. The second study reviews existing research and uses interviews with experts to explore the hurdles to preschool participation faced by these families and to offer solutions. It finds that low-income children face learning challenges such as poverty, social isolation and insufficient home resources, and low-income children from immigrant families face additional challenges such as distrust of government institutions and cultural and linguistic barriers. To overcome these barriers, the authors recommend broadening preschool access for low-income immigrant children by expanding low-cost or free preschool services, improving outreach through multilingual information workshops for parents, tailoring enrollment requirements to linguistic needs, and enhancing the training of educators to reflect the diversity of immigrant families. (Sophia Mitrokostas for The ILC Public Education Institute)

Transatlantic Symposium Report: Improving Instruction for Immigrant and Refugee Students in Secondary Schools,
Migration Policy Institute, November, 2015, 9 pp.
Authors:  Margie McHugh & Julie Sugarman
Students with a migrant background often fall behind their nonimmigrant peers in academic achievement due to a lack of host-country language and literacy skills. This gap is especially large for language minority (LM) students who migrate during their secondary school years. Improving Instruction for Immigrant and Refugee Students in Secondary Schools summarizes the ideas and strategies discussed at a June 2015 Transatlantic Symposium of 30 policymakers, educators and researchers from the United States and Europe. The report explores how school environments can adapt to the growing enrollment of students without strong host-country language skills. Administrators must help educators acquire the skills necessary to support the language development of LM students and to understand their diverse cultural backgrounds. The report contains links to the papers and presentations prepared for the Symposium. The report also examines the role that state, national and supranational governments can play in developing, sustaining and scaling programs that respond to migrant students' unique needs. The report recommends the sharing of best practices among educators, legislators and administrators; the creation of policy priorities such as federal discretionary funding tied to state outcome targets to encourage high-quality instruction for LM and migrant students, and the monitoring of LM students' academic and language development. (Sophia Mitrokostas for The Immigrant Learning Center Public Education Institute)

Resource Guide: Supporting Undocumented Youth, A Guide for Success in Secondary and Postsecondary Settings
U.S. Department of Education, October 20, 2015, 63 pp.
Only 54 percent of undocumented youth have a high school diploma compared to 82 percent of their American-born counterparts. In the Department of Education's Resource Guide: Supporting Undocumented Youth, the agency outlines strategies that educators can utilize to address the educational challenges of undocumented students at the secondary and post-secondary level. The Guide also presents case studies showing how these strategies have been employed in real-life situations, and provides extensive information on national and state policies affecting the educational opportunities of undocumented youth, including charts detailing state "tuition equity" laws and public and private scholarships available to undocumented youth. Undocumented youth face many stressors such as fear of deportation and concerns about the availability of financial aid for college study. One strategy secondary-level educators can pursue to alleviate those stressors is to create a supportive environment that discourages stigmatization of undocumented students and raises awareness of their unique situation. The guide discusses the importance of providing undocumented youth with greater access to information about financial aid and immigration policies. In a Chicago case study, a training program was developed to educate counselors on Deferred Action for Childhood Arrival policies, Illinois tuition laws, and college saving and scholarship programs. (Maryam Bajoghli for The Immigrant Learning Center Public Education Institute)

The Educational, Psychological, and Social Impact of Discrimination on the Immigrant Child,
Migration Policy Institute (MPI), September, 2015, 23 pp.
Author: Christia Spears Brown
Prepared for a workshop on the impact of discrimination on immigrant children, held at MPI on November 20, 2014, this report surveys the landscape of available research on this topic.  The author defines discrimination as "harmful actions toward others because of their ethnicity, nationality, language ability and accent, or immigration status."  According to research, the majority of immigrant children have experienced some form of discrimination, coming from their peers, from school personnel, or through structural arrangements, such as inferior educational approaches or poorly resourced schools in immigrant neighborhoods. Such discrimination produces a host of negative outcomes for children, including  "lower self-esteem and life satisfaction; a greater likelihood of hopelessness, depression, and depressive symptoms; greater anxiety; and more delinquency and aggression."  Discrimination also takes a toll on the academic performance of children, leading to lower self-perception, reduced motivation, lower grades and test scores, and higher drop-out rates. The author, however, points out that there are a number of important "protective factors" that can help to mitigate the impact of discrimination, including a "strong, positive ethnic identity;" efforts by parents to prepare children to deal with discrimination ("ethnic socialization"); and the development of coping and social support skills.  The report concludes with recommendations for school personnel as to how they can reduce or eliminate the pernicious consequences of discrimination.

From Parent to Child?  Transmission of Educational Attainment Within Immigrant Families: Methodological Considerations,
Demography 52: (2015), 24 pp.
Authors: Renee Reichl Luthra & Thomas Soehl

Children of immigrants comprise more than 20 percent of the U.S. population under the age of 18. This study examines the extent to which the educational attainment of immigrant children mirrors that of their parents. The researchers find a "generally weak relationship between parental and child educational attainment within immigrant families." Using individual- and aggregate-level data from surveys of second-generation immigrants in Los Angeles, New York, San Diego and Miami, authors Luther and Soehl find that, for the majority of immigrant groups, children attain higher average education levels than their parents although this pattern varies by national origin. The researchers fault previous studies for overestimating the importance of parental education in immigrant families. They suggest that the common practice of "controlling" for family human capital using parental education is problematic when comparing immigrants from one country to those from another, and to the native population because both immigrants and natives are educated in fundamentally different education systems and, therefore, have educations that are not commensurate. In future analyses, the authors recommend against controlling for education in favor of controlling for the relative educational position of the immigrant in his or her home country. (Karly Foland for the Public Education Institute at The Immigrant Learning Center, Inc.)

Implications of Immigration Enforcement Activities for the Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families: A Review of the Literature,
Urban Institute (with the assistance of the Migration Policy Institute, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the University of Texas at Austin), September, 2015, 48 pp.
Authors:  Randy Capps et al

Funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, this study seeks to understand the impact of parental deportation on the children of undocumented immigrants.  From 2009 to 2013 - when deportation rates were especially high -- as many as half a million parents may have been deported affecting an equal number of U.S.-citizen children. As most of these deportations occurred through partnerships between ICE and local law enforcement authorities, many deported immigrants had prior criminal convictions and may have been already separated from their children through incarceration prior to deportation (Illegal entry and reentry at the southwest border made up 18 percent of convictions between 2003 and 2013). The researchers use a pyramid approach to assess the impact of deportations on children. At the base of the pyramid are the children of all immigrants, whether authorized or not.  Although most of these children may not be directly threatened by deportation, they may know of people in their extended families who are, and some children may not clearly understand the distinction between authorized and unauthorized immigrants. Further up the pyramid are the 5.3 million children with unauthorized parents who "live with the persistent threat of their parents' deportation alongside the economic and social instability that generally accompanies the unauthorized status of their family members." Near the top of the pyramid are the estimated 500,000 children who experienced the deportation of at least one parent from 2011 to 2013.  As 91 percent of those deported are men, two-parent families often become single-parent families. As fathers - especially in Hispanic families - are the primary breadwinners, deportations often lead to extended periods of family economic deprivation. At the pinnacle of the pyramid are those children who are permanently separated from their parents through loss of custody or contact. Based on a survey of child welfare agencies in seven states in 2011, an estimated 5,100 immigrant children nationwide with detained or deported parents were living in foster care. The report concludes with a list of 12 "unanswered questions and avenues for future research," including identifying promising practices for serving children in families affected by deportation. As most of the available studies date from a period when ICE was conducting widespread worksite raids (prior to 2009), there is a paucity of research on the later period when deportations became more geographically dispersed. In order to fill the gap, a companion Urban Institute study looks at the nature and impact of deportations in selected communities in five states:  California, Florida, Illinois, South Carolina, and Texas). An article in The Atlantic summarizes the findings from this study.

Migrant Education and Community Inclusion: Examples of Good Practice
Migration Policy Institute Europe, SIRIUS Network Policy Brief Series, February, 2015, 9 pp.
Author Rafael Berger Sacramento

Migration patterns have long shaped and redefined the European continent, but member states of the European Union differ in how they have integrated the newest stream of migrants into their societies, particularly in the field of education. Rafael Berger Sacramento's policy brief Migrant Education and Community Inclusion: Examples of Good Practice "reviews current measures to promote the integration of migrant students around Europe, specifically those policies and government-backed projects that include the family and community as an integral part of the educational process." The author identifies four key strategies that seem to be producing positive results:  first, bringing parents and communities into schools; second, bringing formal education into migrant homes; third, promoting diversity and awareness among school staff; and fourth, helping students form balanced multicultural identities.  The authors also provide brief descriptions of seven model programs exemplifying these strategies, such as the Pupil Guidance Centers in Belgium, the Home Interaction Program for Parents and Youngsters (HIPPY) in Germany and the Netherlands, and the Flex-ID program in Norway.(Ariella Katz-Suchov for The ILC Public Education Institute)

Intersecting Inequalities: Research to Reduce Inequality for Immigrant Origin Children and Youth,
William T. Grant Foundation, February 2015, 23 pp.
Authors: Carola Suarez-Orozco, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, & Vivian Tseng
This paper summarizes what current research suggests are the six major risk factors confronting immigrant-origin youth: low levels of parental education and employment, poverty, recent arrival in the U.S. (within 10 years), language barriers, racialization as a "visible minority," and undocumented status of self and/or parent. When these factors "intersect," they are predictive of poor educational, health, social, and economic outcomes for children. The authors also explore key contexts for the alleviation of these inequalities, focusing on school and family environments as places where positive change can be achieved. With regard to schools, the authors looks at evidence-based practices in six key areas:  English language instruction, assessment procedures, supports for immigrant students during the "critical transition phase," state and federal educational policies, and improving college pathways and persistence. To reduce disparities in the family environment, the authors stress the importance of access to antipoverty programs, educational programs to boost the human capital of parents, and programs to regularize the status of the undocumented population. The article closes by lamenting the paucity of research on immigrants as the primary target of investigation and suggests various approaches to fill this gap.

Factbook 2015: The Condition of Latinos in Education
Excelencia in Education, January, 2015, 29 pp.
Compiled by:  Deborah A. Santiago, Emily Calderon Galdeano, & Morgan Taylor
The Latino population is one of the fastest growing demographics in the U.S., rising from 13 percent to 17 percent in the last decade and currently projected to reach 31 percent by 2060. This report from Excelencia in Education, a network of colleges and universities working to increase Latino student success, provides a snapshot of Latino educational achievement. Covering early education through graduate studies and workforce education, the data show that although Latino students have achieved academic progress over the last decade, they still face particular hardships as students and workers. For instance, high school dropout rates in Latino populations have decreased by nearly half but remain higher than any other demographic. Conversely, Latino high school graduates now have the highest rate of college enrollment (70 percent compared with 66 percent White and 56 percent African American students) yet Latinos are “significantly overrepresented in lower-paying service occupations” and underrepresented in graduate education. Guided by the belief that education is the best pathway to maximizing human capital, the publishers of this report hope to improve educational policies and practices for Latino students by presenting the most current research. (Jamie Cross for The ILC Public Education Institute  

From Cradle to Career: The Multiple Challenges Facing Immigrant Families in Langley Park Promise Neighborhood,
Urban Institute, Casa de Maryland, & Prince George's County Public Schools, June 23, 2014, 84 pp.
Authors: Molly M. Scott, Graham MacDonald, Juan Collazos, Ben Levinger, Eliza Leighton, Jamila Ball

The recipient of a 2012 planning grant from the Federal Department of Education for a Promise Neighborhood initiative, Langley Park, Maryland, is a working class, heavily immigrant (predominantly Central American) community in the suburbs of Washington, D.C.  Its 17,000 residents  (including  3,700 children) face a multitude of problems,  including low educational attainment for adults (nearly 60 percent have less than a high school education) and a median family income less than a third of the median for all Maryland families with children.  Its children lag behind other children on most standard performance measures, e.g. 37 percent of Langley Park 16 to 19 year olds are working and not in school, a rate more than 4 times the national average. With the participation of local public school systems and many community groups, Casa de Maryland is seeking to serve as anchor organization for a multi-pronged initiative to address the barriers that immigrant children face in successfully completing six crucial childhood transitions. The organization hopes that this initiative will place Langley Park children on the path to academic and career success and serve as a model for the nation.  This report provides a detailed analysis of community needs and resources and puts forth a theory of change to govern the operation of a Promise Neighborhood Initiative.

Immigrant Parents and Early Childhood Programs: Addressing Barriers of Literacy, Culture, and Systems Knowledge,
Migration Policy Institute, June, 2014, 57 pp.
Authors: Maki Park & Margie McHugh
With more than 25 percent of children ages 8 and above having an immigrant parent, this report addresses the "urgent need to address barriers facing low-literate and limited English proficient (LEP) parents of young children." Forty-seven (47) percent of these parents are LEP and 45 percent are low income.  Moreover, immigrant parents are more than twice as likely to be low-educated, i.e. lacking a high school diploma or its equivalent. Based on field research in six states, a series of focus groups, and demographic analysis, the report stresses the connection between effective parent engagement and the academic success of children from immigrant backgrounds.  The report details the various forms of parental engagement strategies that have proven effective in the past, including literacy and English language programs for parents. The authors recommend the creation of a "large-scale pilot program" jointly sponsored by HHS and the U.S. Department of Education to address the educational needs of these parents. They also urge efforts to improve accountability for how Title 1 family engagement funds are utilized.   In addition, they recommend the collection of data on parents' levels of education and language proficiency prior to kindergarten entry so that policymakers can design appropriate interventions. As the U.S. has entered an "era of early childhood system-building" at a time when immigration levels are at historic highs, the report concludes that the early childhood field should be "on the front line" of efforts to promote the integration of immigrants in the U.S. 

Supporting Immigrant Families' Access to Prekindergarten,
Urban Institute, March 19, 2014, 34 pp.
Authors: Julia Gelatt, Gina Adams, & Sandra Huerta
Funded by a grant from the Annie E. Casey Foundation, this report discusses the reasons why immigrant children are underrepresented in prekindergarten programs and identifies strategies to increase their enrollment. The report is based on more than 40 interviews with specialists in this area. Promising strategies fall into four broad categories: outreach, enrollment assistance, building relationships with parents, and building immigrant-friendly prekindergarten programs. Although many of these strategies have been identified in the past, the authors felt a need to highlight them again, especially for the benefit of school districts experiencing inflows of immigrants for the first time. The appendix includes more detailed information about five model public education programs of special meritd:  Portland (Maine), Tulsa (Oklahoma), Montgomery County (Maryland),  the Early Childhood Education Grant Program (Nebraska), and the Early Childhood Education and Assistance Program (Washington).

To dream or not to dream: The effects of immigration status, discrimination, and parental influence on Latino children's access to education
Migration Studies, 2014, 23 pp.
Author: Elzbieta M. Gozdziak
 
Through the use of case studies and interviews, this article seeks to understand how undocumented status impacts the educational performance and social experience of children. The author examines both unauthorized immigrant children and U.S.-born children with an unauthorized parent(s).  While undocumented children have the right to a K-12 education, they often lack the necessary resources and support to achieve scholastic success.  Moreover,  the need to support the family, combined with family and cultural pressures  to leave school, lead to spotty attendance, high dropout rates, and low post-secondary completion. While middle-class migrant parents tend to be supportive of their children's educational advancement, working class parents often are not. Furthermore, undocumented children face ethnic stereotyping by peers (in-group and out-group), teachers, and administrators; resentment and discriminatory behaviors create a culture of exclusion and unequal opportunity. Meanwhile, difficulties being undocumented grow noticeably with age through the avoidance of authorities, social isolation, and restrictions on travel. Consequently, fear of deportation can lead to lack of participation in extracurricular activities, which impacts post-secondary prospects. Other barriers to college include: difficulties in accessing financial aid, parental opposition to higher education, and misconceptions regarding college eligibility. The author emphasizes that DACA and DREAM Act legislation are not panaceas.  Our stereotype of the striving, college-bound DREAM Act beneficiary does not accord with the reality of most of these children. Lastly, the author suggests that creative efforts to educate parents through literacy and vocational training would help families realize the relationship between higher education and upward mobility for their children. (Colin Liebtag)

Education Reform in a Changing Georgia: Promoting High School and College Success for Immigrant Youth,
Migration Policy Institute (MPI), March 2014, 80 pp.
Authors: Sarah Hooker, Michael Fix, and Margie McHugh
Funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, this report is the second in a series of MPI reports examining the education and workforce experience of immigrant youth in five states. "Immigrant youth" are defined as first- and second-generation young people between the ages of 16 and 26. The report examines their progress within the K-12, adult education, and postsecondary education systems.  Despite the rapid rate of growth of Georgia's immigrant population (Georgia ranked 8 in the size of its immigrant population in 2012, up from 16th place in 1990), the state has placed a number of obstacles in the path of its immigrants, including barring undocumented immigrants from adult education classes and requiring them to pay out-of-state tuition at public colleges. These policies have been particularly burdensome for youth who would otherwise be eligible for DACA but lack a high school diploma or its equivalency (enrollment in adult education would enable them to apply for DACA).  Despite these policies, some educational institutions have shown a degree of success in addressing the needs of these young people. The Gwinnett County School System, for example, which has the highest immigrant enrollment in the state, has made extensive use of summer school to help increase graduation rates for English language learners (ELLs); and community colleges, such as Georgia Perimeter and Georgia Gwinnett, have developed mentoring programs targeting Latino students.  The report concludes with a set of recommendations specific to the three educational systems analyzed in the report. For K-12 educators, for example, the report urges greater participation by ELLs in content courses; for adult educators, concerted efforts to provide pathways for ELLS into postsecondary and certificate programs; and for postsecondary educators, giving participants in the English for Academic Purposes (EAP) program more opportunities to take mainstream college courses. These and other recommendations in the report were based on data analysis and interviews with approximately 50 education administrators, state agency officials, and community leaders.

Embracing Linguistic Diversity: The Role of Teacher Leaders in Building Seattle's Pipeline of International Schools,
Alliance for Excellent Education, October, 2013, 18 pp.
Author: Mariana Haynes
This report discusses why and how the U.S. education system needs to change in order to accommodate the increasing number of linguistically diverse students in America. Using Seattle's growing network of international schools as a model, author Mariana Haynes discusses effective ways to address the cultural and language diversity of students in a manner that benefits both the students and American society as a whole.  According to the report, "It is estimated that by 2030 half of all public school students will have non-English speaking backgrounds." Mainstream programs for English Language Learners (ELLs) provide students with a "below-standard curriculum," viewing language diversity as a deficit to overcome, rather than an asset. By way of contrast, schools embracing "cultural and linguistic diversity are producing far better outcomes than traditional schools, which have historically undeserved students from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds." Ten years after the first international elementary school opened in Seattle, "fourth- and fifth-grade proficiency rates increased by more than 30 percentage points...significantly outperforming district and state averages." The purpose of the innovative design of Seattle's international and immersion schools, Hayes points out, is not to academically outperform traditional schools but rather to effectively prepare students to meet the demands of the global economy and to produce "employees with knowledge of foreign languages and cultures to work effectively with employees and partners in other countries." The author's concluding remarks offer policy recommendations for developing effective school designs that "focus on developing students' twenty-first century knowledge, skills, and dispositions."  (Jade Flora-Holmquist)

Early Education for Dual Language Learners: Promoting School Readiness and Early School Success,
Migration Policy Institute (MPI), November , 2013, 28 pp.
Author: Linda M. Espinosa
This paper reviews the literature on early childhood education (ECE) for dual language learners (DLLs) in an effort to identify educational practices that have proven effective in helping children succeed in school.  A retired Professor of Early Childhood Education at the University of Missouri (Columbia), the author prepared this paper for a public symposium on ECE convened by MPI in January 2013. As defined by the Office of Head Start, "Dual language learners are children learning two or more languages at the same time..."  According to Espinosa, this term, rather than such terms as "English Language Learners (ELLS)," avoids the erroneous assumption that young children (from birth to age 5)  have already acquired fluency in home language.  She begins by noting that achievement patterns for immigrant children vary by ethnicity and socioeconomic status.  However, even "after controlling for country of origin, family income, and education, young DLLS in immigrant families showed more positive cognitive outcomes when some amount of the heritage language was being used in the home."  Although ECE cannot compensate for all disadvantages experienced by poor immigrant children, "most scholars do agree that high-quality early learning opportunities will positively affect the school readiness of young DLLs."  An important strategy is to boost ECE participation rates among DLLs, which tend to lag behind those of monolingual children.  However, once DLLs participate in ECE, research suggests that the use of home language "leads to improvement in first language skills and at least equivalent English language skills in comparison to children in all-English contexts." Given the diversity of languages and cultures represented in the immigrant population, few teachers will have the ability to offer instruction in home language.  However, the author reviews a number of techniques that can be used by the monolingual teacher, some dependent on the participation of parents and volunteers, to support continued development of home languages.

  
When White Is Just Alright: How Immigrants Redefine Achievement and Reconfigure the Ethnoracial Hierarchy,
American Sociological Review (2013), 78: 849, 22 pp.

Authors: Tomás R. Jiménez & Adam L. Horowitz
Cupertino is an affluent and heavily Asian community in California's Silicon Valley.  The authors of this study examined racial dynamics within the Cupertino school system and discovered that the traditional link between white ethnoracial identity and academic achievement has been "turned on its head.  Asianness is intimately associated with high achievement, hard work, and academic success. Whiteness, in contrast, stands for lower achievement, laziness, and academic mediocrity." According to the authors, the heavy presence of an immigrant-origin population has the potential to alter the normative, third-generation educational standards in a community-benchmarks historically seen as set by its white members. The study draws on in-depth interviews with 61 third-plus-generation individuals and another 10 key informants. Fifty-one of the 61 individuals were upper-middle class whites of European ancestry. The authors explore the many ramifications of this shift in the hierarchical ordering of race, including the impact of negative stereotyping on the academic performance of white students and the flight of white students into less academically rigorous private schools.  Although "the U.S. ethnoracial system is still defined by white privilege," the authors contend that "the challenge to whiteness that high-skilled immigration poses is significant."

English Language Learners: Shifting to an Asset-Based Paradigm,
Annenberg Institute for School Reform (Brown University),
Special Issue of Voices in Urban Education (VUE), Summer, 2013, 56 pp.

The articles in this special issue of VUE examine different aspects of asset-based education for English language learners (ELLS).  In the lead article, Rosann Tung, Director of Research and Policy at the Annenberg institute for School Reform, laments that "most states and districts lack a vision for ELL education that builds on families' cultural and linguistic assets."  She places part of the blame on national leaders who promote testing in English and the Common Core Standards as educational panaceas without taking account of the rich and growing diversity of the student population in the U.S. Compounding the problem is the fact that most higher education institutions have not modified their pre-service teacher education programs to give all teachers, not just ESL teachers, an understanding of language learning and linguistic developmental milestones.  Rather than casting ELL education as a "problem, dilemma, achievement gap, or crisis," the contributors to this special issue "shift the paradigm, reminding and urging us to embrace ELLs as the very community members who, when well educated, will be the bicultural, bilingual leaders who improve our city neighborhoods and help us participate effectively in the global economy."   Among the schools and programs held up as models in the issue are: the International Charter School in Pawtucket, Rhode Island;  the Margarita Muniz Academy in Boston; the Internationals Network for Public Schools in New York City; the schools in Clark County, Nevada; and the family support programs of the Chinatown Neighborhood Center in Boston.  A concluding article examines state investments in ELL education in high-ELL-growth states and finds major shortcomings; we have produced "a system adept at labeling failure but incapable of doing anything about it."
 
Preparing the Children of Immigrants for Early Academic Success
Migration Policy Institute, July, 2013, 18 pp.
Author: Robert Crosnoe

This report begins with a discussion of the  "immigrant paradox in education,"  a phenomenon observed by some researchers in which immigrant children "tend to do better academically and behaviorally than their families socioeconomic circumstances suggest they will."  Much of this research, the author notes, is based on studies of high school students. Newly available data sets, however, permit an analysis of younger children and reveal a more nuanced picture, where, for example, young children of foreign-born Blacks scored higher on achievement tests than the children of U.S.-born Blacks (confirming the Immigrant paradox), but the children of foreign-born Latino families, and especially Mexican families, scored lower that the children of U.S.-born Latinos. "The bottom line," according to the author, "...is that the immigrant paradox pattern that is so strong in secondary school is weaker in elementary school, in particular during the years surrounding the transition into formal schooling." The rest of the paper examines three "high impact" policy interventions that are likely to minimize the risks faced by immigrant children. These are: expanded access to early education, promotion of better child health and efforts to establish and maintain family-school partnerships.  As children of immigrants are less likely to be enrolled in pre-school programs than native-born children, less likely to have health insurance, and less likely to have engaged parents, these three interventions will "possibly reduce disparities between the educational outcomes of the children of immigrants and their US-born counterparts." (Denzil Mohammed)

Diverse Children: Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration in America's New Non-Majority Generation,
Foundation for Child Development, July, 2013, 35 pp.
Authors: Donald J. Hernandez & Jeffrey S. Napierala 

This report uses 19 indicators to compare the children of immigrants with the children of native-born parents across four racial/ethnic groups: Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White. Although the children of immigrants start life with certain advantages, e.g. greater likelihood of living in a two-parent family with at least one securely employed person, they also face serious risks to their academic and life success, such as low median family income  ($33,396 for Hispanic children with immigrant parents), lack of health insurance (19 percent of Hispanic children with immigrant parents compared to 7 percent of White and Asian children with U.S.-born parents), and low rates of Pre-K enrollment (only 37 percent of Hispanic children as compared to 50-55 percent for other groups).  After examining all 19 indicators, the report finds that the two groups at highest risk are Black children with U.S.-born parents, and Hispanic children with immigrant parents. The authors recommend greater investment in early education programs for all students; adequate funding and resources to meet the needs of dual language learners; ensuring that all children are covered by health insurance, particularly the citizen children of undocumented immigrants; and strengthening safety net programs, such as SNAP and the Child Tax Credit, to meet the needs of immigrant families experiencing economic insecurity.

Preparing Young Hispanic Dual Language Learners for a Knowledge Economy,
National Institute for Early Education Research, Rutgers University, January, 2013, 16 pp.
Authors: Alexandra Figueras-Daniel & W. Steven Barnett
This policy brief reviews research on the participation of Hispanic dual language learners in preschool programs. Although the school achievement of Hispanic children, in particular children with limited English proficiency,  lags behind other groups, Hispanic children are less likely than any other ethnic group to enroll in preschool programs. According to the authors, this low rate is primarily a function of limited access, rather than any reluctance of the part of Hispanic parents to enroll their children in such programs. New Jersey's successful track record in enrolling Hispanic children in its so-called "Abbott districts" supports this conclusion. The authors stress the importance of English language proficiency by kindergarten as an important predictor of school success. However, "there is a consensus in the research community that development and maintenance of the first language can be supported without interfering with English language and literacy skill acquisition." Indeed, some research suggests that "additive language programs" produce better student performance than English-only approaches. The authors also point to the need to educate Hispanic parents about the value of stimulating the cognitive and social development of their children even before preschool. Finally, the authors argue that teacher preparation and professional development are "critical components" in developing high-quality programs. One study found that fewer than 15 percent of teacher education programs at the nation's colleges and universities require students to take a course devoted specifically to working with dual language learners. The brief concludes with a list of "best practices" for working with young dual language learners.

Unlocking the Research on English Learners:  What We Know - and Don't Yet Know - about Effective Instruction,
American Educator, Summer, 2013, 9 pp.
Author: Claude Goldenberg
Despite a recent surge in the number of professional publications devoted to the topic of English learners (ELs), Claude Goldenberg, a professor of education at Stanford University, concludes that there is "surprisingly little research" on effective instructional practices with ELs. Notwithstanding the dearth of research, he posits three general principles that seem to be supported by the literature:  first, generally effective instructional practices are likely to be effective with ELs; Second, ELs require additional instructional supports; and third, the home language can be a powerful tool to promote academic development. The author elaborates on each of these principles. With regard to the first principle, he cites examples from various studies of how generally effective teaching practices, such as structured writing, Success for All, and Direct Instruction, have also proven effective with ELs; however, he points out that while such practices are necessary, they are not sufficient for success. With the advent of the common core, various supports and modifications sometimes referred to as "sheltered instruction," will be essential; however, "there is not much evidence that these strategies actually help English learners overcome the challenges they face in learning advanced academic content and skills..." Finally, Goldenberg addresses the controversial topic of the role of home language in instructing ELs, finding that "numerous experimental studies have been conducted over the past 40 years, and the consensus - although it is by no means unanimous - is that learning to read in their home language helps ELs boost reading skills in English." The author stresses, however, that primary language instruction leading to bilingualism "should be seen as a value in and of itself," because it brings intellectual, cultural, and economic benefits to the nation.

Educating K-12 English Language Learners with Disabilities,
Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota (Feature Issue of Impact), Winter/Spring, 2013, 36 pp.
This collection of 18 articles reviews the theory and practice of serving an estimated 500,000 limited English proficient students with disabilities in U.S. schools. Among the topics covered in the issue are: a profile of English language learners with disabilities, the present and future of bilingual ESL special education, the legal obligations of the education system to serve English learners with disabilities; the Common Core Standards and their impact on this population; utilizing differentiated instruction for English language learners with disabilities; staff development initiatives;  how to include English language learners in Response to Intervention (RTI) systems; the role of interpreters and speech-language pathologists; and the experience of the National Council of La Raza's network of 115 charter schools in serving ELLs with disabilities. Cross-cutting themes in the articles are the need to distinguish between language-related needs and disability-related needs and the importance of fostering collaboration between special education and language teachers to address the complex needs of this population.

Shaping our Futures: The Educational and Career Success of Washington State's Immigrant Youth,
Migration Policy Institute, June, 2013, 97 pp.
Authors: Sarah Hooker, Margie McHugh, Michael Fix, Randy Capps
Produced under a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, this is the first in a series of five state-level reports examining the progress of immigrant students in the K-12, post-secondary, and workforce training systems. The overarching goal of the project is to identify promising educational strategies and unmet needs using a comparative approach.  The particular focus of the project is immigrant youth (defined as immigrants or the children of immigrants) between the ages of 16 to 26, who constitute approximately 26 percent of all youth in Washington State. Special attention is given to certain sub-groups of this population: refugees, children of migrant workers, late-arriving immigrant children, students with interrupted formal education (SIFE), and long-term ELLs -- defined as students who have been in U.S. schools for six years or more but remain classified. The researchers selected two areas of the state with high concentrations of immigrants for in-depth study: the King County area (including Seattle) and the Yakima Valley in Central Washington,  and conducted approximately 60 in-person or telephone interviews with key informants. Among practices found to be effective within K-12 settings are extended school days for English language learners (ELLs) and granting academic credit for first language skills. The report also provides detailed information about several of the state's most innovative educational initiatives benefitting out-of-school immigrant youth, including the I-BEST program, which integrates ESL or ABE classes with professional or technical college-level classes; the "On-Ramp to I-BEST," which provides a similar  integrated approach to lower-level learners; and the Integrated Digital English Acceleration (I-DEA) initiative, which seeks to utilize on-line learning to reduce the amount of class time spent in learning English and acquiring college-level credits and credentials. The report concludes with a series of recommendations, including improvements in teacher training, scaling up programs that provide additional learning time for ELLs, more sophisticated and uniform data collection on ELLs and immigrant youth, accelerated approaches to remediation on the community college level, and a sustainable funding model for adult education.

Implementing the Common Core State Standards for English Learners: The changing Role of the ESL Teacher
TESOL International Association, April 2013, 8 pp.
Author: Diane Staer Fenner
In February of 2013, TESOL International Association convened a meeting of experts "to start a conversation on how the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) will change the roles of those who teach English as a second language (ESL)." This meeting report notes that "ESL teachers have been largely absent from the conversation around this important educational reform, yet they will play a critical role in its successful implementation..."  One problem is that ESL teachers are often lower in status than content-area teachers, in part because ESL is not recognized as a core academic content area under the NCLB law. Another is the lack of uniform standards and consistency in ESL teacher credentialing requirements around the country. Meeting participants argued that the role of the ESL teacher must evolve to become "experts, consultants, and trainers well versed in teaching rigorous academic content ..." ESL teachers can help content teachers use language and culture more effectively during CCSS-based instruction. They should attend content-area department meetings to bring their special perspective to bear on school reform efforts. Stakeholders at the meeting also recommended new approaches to professional development that will expose content-area teachers to the techniques of teaching English language learners and to ways of collaborating with ESL teachers.

Unauthorized Immigrant Parents and Their Children's Development: A Summary of the Evidence,
Migration Policy Institute, March, 2013, 23 pp.
Authors:  Hirokazu Yoshikawa & Jenya Kholoptseva
One of a series of papers prepared for a January 2013 symposium on the cognitive, physical, and emotional development of immigrant children, this paper reviews research findings on the impact of the unauthorized status of parents on their children's life prospects. Although research on this subject is limited, available studies suggest that unauthorized status is associated with lower cognitive skills in early childhood, higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms during adolescence, and fewer years of schooling. As children of unauthorized parents make up nearly one-third of all children with immigrant parents and 8 percent of all US children, the fate of these children, according to the authors, should be taken into consideration when policy makers discuss immigration reform. The authors review six "mechanisms of influence" that impede the development of these children:  deportation of parents,  parent-child separation during travel, lower access to means-tested programs, poor working conditions for parents, psychological distress and economic hardship, and for the 1 million children who are themselves unauthorized, awareness of one's own unauthorized status and its consequences. The report concludes with a series of policy recommendations to address the plight of these children, including steps to modify unauthorized status,  exercising discretion in deportation cases involving children,  utilizing trusted NGOs in enrolling children in means-tested programs, promoting enrollment in  center-based care, and improved working conditions that would likely result from comprehensive immigration reform.

English Language Learners in America's Great City Schools: Demographics, Achievement, and Staffing,
Council of the Great City Schools, 2013,  112 pp.

This report, produced by an organization representing 67 urban school districts, provides a snapshot of English language learners (ELLs) and programs to serve them. Described as "one of the most comprehensive data-collection efforts on English Language Learners ever attempted," the report is based on an extensive survey conducted in 2012.  The report provides ELL enrollment data for all districts, including ELL enrollment as a percentage of total district enrollment, ELL enrollments by grade level, number of ELLs who are refugees, languages spoken by ELLs, number of ELLs receiving special educational services, and achievement data for ELLs. The report also discusses variations in the definitions of ELLs, procedures used to identify ELLs, parental opt-in or opt-out policies, and hiring and professional development requirements for ELL teachers.
 
Educating English Language Learners: Grantmaking Strategies for Closing America's
Other Achievement Gap
,
Grantmakers for Education, April 2013, 30 pp.
Drawing on an online survey of 138 grantmaking organizations and in-depth  interviews with 24 survey respondents, this report takes the pulse of foundation grantmaking in support of English language learners, who now constitute 10.7 percent of the K-12 student population. Many are struggling academically and have poor educational outcomes. Although a growing number of funders are targeting resources to this population, the overall percentage of grants in this area remains small, i.e. less than 1 percent of education grants listed in the Foundation Center database. Most foundations make these grants through larger education portfolios; only two foundations have a stand-alone English language learner portfolio. Indeed, the majority of  "ELL grants" are not exclusively targeting English learners or their needs, but rather "embedded in more generic strategies to close the achievement gap or improve educational outcomes for low income, under-served or minority students." The authors suggest that such an approach may fail to address the unique needs of English learners. The report summarizes "lessons for philanthropy" from the growing body of research and experience in this field and concludes with four case studies of successful grantmaking specifically targeting English language learners.

The English Learner Dropout Dilemma:  Multiple Risks and Multiple Resources,
University of California Santa Barbara, Gevritz Graduate School of Education, February, 2013, 60 pp.
Author: Rebecca M. Callahan
In the 2008-09 school year, nearly 11 percent of U.S. students in grades K-12 were classified as English learners (EL), and many more were former EL students, no longer counted in school statistics. This report examines the extent, consequences, causes, and solutions to the dropout crisis among EL students and the extent to which EL dropouts mirror or deviate from the profile of the broader dropout population. Research repeatedly shows that EL students are about twice as likely to drop out as native and fluent English speakers. While many of the social and economic factors that produce dropouts in the general population apply to EL students, others are unique, such as tracking as a result of EL status; limited access to EL-trained or certified teachers, especially in academic subjects; and a high stakes accountability system. In terms of solutions to the EL dropout dilemma, the report proposes three main reforms: stronger academic exposure within EL classes, use of the primary language in instruction, and a shift from a deficit to an additive perspective. The use of the term "emergent bilingual" has been suggested as a way of capturing this new perspective.

Multilingualism and Multiculturalism: Transatlantic Discourses on Language, Identity, and Immigrant Schooling,
Notre Dame Law Review,
November, 2012, 31 pp.
Author: Rosemary C. Salomone
This paper argues for a fundamental change in how policy makers and educators on both sides of the Atlantic view the role of home languages in the educational process.  In the face of mounting evidence that dual language competence promotes greater educational gains among children, enhances self-esteem, strengthens family and community, and gives the nation a competitive advantage in the global market for goods and services, the author laments the fact that the predominant view of immigrant education is that it should be "subtractive," rather than "additive," i.e. reducing use of heritage languages while increasing use of English (or other national or sanctioned languages in Europe), rather than building competence in both.  She reviews the forces that sustain this view. In the United States, she points to anti-immigrant sentiment, particularly directed at Spanish-speaking immigrants from Mexico;  a deep-seated discomfort with any kind of "difference" that goes beyond the prevailing "multiculturalism lite" ideology; concerns over persistent Latino-white achievement gap; and an emphasis on "basics" and testing that tends to curtail innovation in education. In Europe, on the other hand, multilingualism is at the heart of the European project, so while the ideology is supportive  of "plurilingualism,"  only languages indigenous to Europe are given tolerance and support; immigrant languages, such as Arabic and Turkish, are generally ignored, to the detriment of immigrants and their children and to Europe as a whole.  As there are a multitude of factors, including the child's age of arrival, the number of children from the same linguistic background within a particular school system, and the number of native-born families interested in learning a heritage language, the author acknowledges that a "one-size-fits-all" approach is not desirable. However, "the importance of the home language in promoting emotional well-being, cognitive development, and  social integration....(means that) it is now time for government officials and educators on both sides of the Atlantic to consider policies and practices that definitively respect the language of linguistic minority students, while finding common ground between the home and mainstream culture."
 

The Role of Language and Literacy in College- and Career-Ready Standards: Rethinking Policy and Practice in Support of English Language Learners,
Alliance for Excellent Education,
October, 2012, 19 pp.
Author:  Mariana Haynes
This paper argues for a shift in how policymakers, administrators, curriculum developers, teacher educators, and assessment specialists approach language, skill and content area instruction for English Language Learners (ELLs).  Defined as students who are in the process of acquiring English language proficiency, the ELL population is rapidly expanding and facing growing pressure to succeed academically while learning English. The new Common Core State Standards, currently being implemented by 46 states, as well as the Next Generation Science Standards, being developed in 26 states, have implications for ELLs because they require students to acquire competencies simultaneously in English language and other areas, such as mastery of academic content, creative and critical thinking, collaboration, communication, and self-reflection.  Traditional approaches to ELL education on the secondary level often stressed "content-free" language proficiency with little opportunity to hear and learn language from other students and teachers within subject-area classrooms. The paper details the "key strategies for language and content learning" and urges the creation of "powerful learning environments" to provide ELLs "with rich, authentic tasks that bridge content-area learning with language and literacy development."  The report concludes with a series of recommendations for state education departments, covering the alignment of English Language proficiency and common core standards, as well as a broader professional development effort recognizing that ELL education is a "shared responsibility among teachers in all disciplines." (Jessica Spooner)


Comparative Perspectives on International Migration and Child Wellbeing (Summary of Articles),
The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (Issue Introduction), September, 2012, 15 pp.
This issue seeks to address a serious gap in the research literature on migration, i.e. "whether and how migration improves or diminishes the life opportunities of children and youth." According to the editors -- Alícia Adserà and Marta Tienda of Princeton University -- unless migrant youth are engaged in the labor market, they tend to be ignored in international reports about migration and development. Moreover, "few studies portray the selection process that determines whether or not children migrate with their parents, follow them later, or remain behind and wait for their return." Although the second generation, or children born in countries of settlement, has received considerable scholarly attention, the first generation has been largely ignored. The studies in this volume, therefore, enable policy makers "to identify preventable circumstances that can thwart successful integration of migrant children." Among the key findings, drawn from research on migrant children in the U.S., Italy, Spain, and the U.K, are that "the scholastic achievement gaps are wider for migrant youth who arrive at later ages" but that compulsory Pre-K schooling decreases disparities for these young people.  The articles in this issue are only available through subscription, but the summary may be downloaded using the above link.


 
Patterns and Predictors of School Readiness and Early Childhood Success Among Young Children in Black Immigrant Families,
Migration Policy Institute, October, 2012, 35 pp.
This paper seeks to fill a research void on the health and development of Black immigrant children, who constitute 12 percent of all Black children in the United States. The University of North Carolina researchers draw their data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, which tracks a representative sample of over 10,000 children born in 2001. The paper suggests that Black immigrant families have many advantages compared to native Black families, Hispanic and Southeast Asian immigrant families, and in certain cases, White native families.  These include: relatively high rates of marriage and employment; fluency in English; low consumption of alcohol, tobacco, or drugs during pregnancy; high breastfeeding rates;  fewer birth complications; higher educational expectations for their children; and higher enrollment rates in center-based care.  On the other hand, more than half of Black immigrant families are poor or near-poor, with incomes less than twice the federal poverty level. To the extent that the data will allow, the researchers also explore differences between children of African and Caribbean descent, noting, for example, a greater tendency for Caribbean families to utilize center-based care than African families (87 percent of Caribbean families as compared to 71 percent of African families). The authors also examine the reading skills of children in Black immigrant families at the kindergarten level and note that "Black children...outperform both Black and white children of natives once socioeconomic controls are included."

Parenting Behavior, health, and Cognitive Development among Children in Black Immigrant Families: Comparing the United States and the United Kingdom,
Migration Policy Institute, September, 2012, 31 pp.
Written by sociologist Margot Jackson of Brown University, this paper explores the question of "whether the children of Black immigrants, who constitute an increasingly large fraction of the children of immigrants in the United States, will integrate toward the mainstream of non-Hispanic white America or whether their development will more closely resemble that of Black children with native-born parents." The paper examines the integration of these children across two developmental domains -- health (physical and mental) and cognitive -- and within two national contexts: the United States and the United Kingdom. The author cautions that the findings should be "interpreted cautiously" as the size of the sample (250 UK children and 120 US children) is quite small and does not permit the analysis of families by region of origin, i.e. Africa and the Caribbean. She finds both "favorable and disadvantaged patterns" in the development of these children. In both the U.S. and the U.K., "there is clear evidence of favorable breastfeeding patterns...and high usage of early prenatal care," as well as healthy birth weight and, in the U.K. only, lower asthma risk at age 5. However, Black children from immigrant families, especially in the U.K., perform more poorly on tests of verbal development. She cautions that her study does not control for "selective migration," or the tendency of some people or groups to migrate more frequently than others. She expects that future research will shed light on "how nativity-based inequalities in child development evolve over time..."

Children of Immigrants: Growing National and State Diversity,
Urban Institute, October, 2011, 10 pp.
This research brief tracks growth in the population of children of immigrants age 0 to 17.  Children of immigrants may be immigrants themselves or U.S. born with at least one immigrant parent. By 2009, children of immigrants numbered 16.8 million and constituted 23% of all children, close to one in four of all children in the U.S.  The great majority (14.5 million) were born in the U.S.  Hispanics at 56 percent are the largest minority group among children of immigrants, followed by non-Hispanic Asians (18 percent), whites (18 percent) and blacks (eight percent).  As a result of these changes, the share of U.S. children under 18 who were white decreased from 62 to 56 percent from 2000 to 2009. In nine states, white children were in the minority.


An Imperative for Change: Bridging Special and Language Learning Education to Ensure a Free and Appropriate Education in the Least Restrictive Environment for ELLs with Disabilities in Massachusetts,
The Mauricio Gastón Institute for Latino Community Development and Public Policy, University of Massachusetts, Boston
Noting a sharp rise in the number of English language learners with disabilities in Massachusetts schools - in part resulting from the 2002 state referendum that scrapped the policy of transitional bilingual education - the author of this report examines the problems, policies, and procedures associated with educating immigrant children with disabilities.  She calls attention to the misdiagnosis of disability, especially apparent in the categories of communication and intellectual impairments, which acts to conceal the failure of the school to educate these children.  On the other hand, LEP children with true disabilities are often placed in monolingual classroom environments where they fail to receive grade-level academic instruction in the language they understand best.  Among the many recommendations offered by the author is to place greater emphasis on the education and licensure of teachers of English language Learners who also have training in the education of children with disabilities.  Another is to place ELLs with disabilities with their ELL peers with no disabilities in general language learning classrooms.


The Future of Immigrant Children,
Special Issue of the Journal, "The Future of Children,"
Princeton University and the Brookings Institution, Spring, 2011
This collection of articles provides an overview of recent research on the challenges involved in educating immigrant youth, defined as children 17 years of age or younger with at least one immigrant parent. Such children now constitute 23% of all children in U.S. schools and are estimated to grow to one-third of all children by 2050.  In their
introduction to the issue, Co-editors Marta Tienda and Ron Haskins call attention to the imbalance in public spending between benefits for the elderly -- funded largely through payroll taxes and generally off-limits to budget-cutters -- and educational spending, funded through state and local tax revenues, which tend to contract during recessionary times. Yet the ability of immigrant youth to succeed educationally, acquire the skills necessary to contribute to a 21stcentury economy, and build the tax base to sustain expenditures for the growing senior population is critical to the future of American society. Other articles in this issue discuss risk factors that hamper the educational progress of these children, including the failure to master English prior to the third grade, lack of educational attainment and English proficiency among parents, and lower participation rates in pre-school. Among the policy recommendations put forward by Tienda and Haskins in a policy brief included in the collection are the following: provide preschool education to all low-income immigrant children, perhaps by allowing states to control Head Start funding; and passing a modified version of the DREAM Act.



The Head Start Child Development and Early Learning Framework,
U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services (HHS), Administration for Children and Families, Office of Head Start, December, 2010, 22 pp
Recognizing that the population of children served by Head Start (3-5 years olds) and other early childhood programs is growing more diverse, and that the original Child Development and Early Learning Framework, published in 2000, needed to be revised, HHS has modified the Framework to reflect this diversity and trends in child development research. The Framework is organized into 11 domains, 37 domain elements, and over 100 examples. Although 10 of the 11 domains pertain to all children, one domain new to the revised Framework - English Language Development - applies to children who speak a language other than English at home. The Framework makes clear that dual language learners must have opportunities to "demonstrate their abilities, skills, and knowledge in any language, including their home language."


Young Children of Immigrants:  The Leading Edge of America's future,
The Urban institute, August, 2010, 13 pp
This brief discusses the life circumstances of immigrant children, defined as children age 0 to 8 (whether born abroad or in the U.S.) with at least one foreign-born parent. In 2008, 24% of children in the U.S. fell into this category, up from 20% in 2000.  Percentages vary significantly by state, with seven states -- including California, New York, and New Jersey -- higher than 30%.  The brief presents data on pre-school enrollment,  English language proficiency, educational background of parents, and family poverty for this group of children. Data is broken down by state and nationality background.

The Integration of Immigrants and Their Families in Maryland: A Look at
Children of Immigrants and Their Families in Maryland
,
Prepared for the Annie E. Casey Foundation by The Urban Institute, June, 2010, 65 pp
This is the second in a two-part examination of the immigrant population in the State of Maryland. This report provides a detailed portrait of the children of immigrants and their families.  The number of Maryland children with at least one immigrant parent more than doubled from 121,000 in 1990 to 253,000 in 2006. Without this increase, the state's population would have stagnated or declined, due to the low fertility rate of native-born white parents. The report also provides information on the 69,000 children of immigrants living in low-income families, i.e. families with incomes below twice the poverty level.  Although many enjoy "protective" factors, such as a higher percentage of two-parent families than among children of native families, they also face special burdens, such as lower rates of participation in center-based care and more crowded housing, burdens which need to be taken into consideration in designing effective educational and social policies.

Minority Parent and Community Engagement:  Best Practices and Policy Recommendations for Closing the Gaps in Student Achievement,
Mexican American legal Defense and Education Fund (MALDEF) and National Education Association (NEA), June, 2010, 43 pp
This report grew out of a "Minority Parent Engagement Summit" sponsored by MALDEF and the NEA in 2009. The report details "best practices" from "several well-established parental engagement organizations."  The practices are reported by organizations serving the African-American, American Indian, Asian and Pacific Islander, Latino, and multiethnic groups. A section of the report describes barriers to engagement that appear to be common to all communities. The report concludes with seven overarching policy recommendations, including "increas(ing) accountability for the implementation of parent engagement plans and policies" and "increase(ing) professional development for school staff on parent engagement."


New Start for Youth Study:  An Examination of the Settlement Pathways of Newcomer Youth
Canadian Immigrant Settlement Sector Alliance/Alliance Canadiennne du Sector de l'Establissement des Immigrants, April, 2010, 73 pp
With the second highest immigrant population in the world, of which 36% are 24 years of age or under, Canada has a vital interest in promoting the successful integration of its newcomer youth.  This study, prepared by a researcher at the University of Guelph and funded by the Canadian government, examines a cross-section of 125 young people in five provinces of Canada. All are legal residents between the ages of 11 to 20 years who have lived in Canada for five years or less. Using surveys, personal statements, and focus groups, the study opens a window on the experiences and problems of these young people. The study also inquires into coping mechanisms and solicits recommendations from the participants as to strategies that might ease the transition to their new environment. Among these strategies are "more formalized mentorship/buddy/peer support programs in schools and the community that help to create ‘instant' social networks," and the development of a "'Welcome to Canada' multilingual survival handbooks for newcomer youth that could be provided to youth prior and/or after their arrival in the country."


Reading and Language Outcomes of a Five-Year Randomized Evaluation of Transitional Bilingual Education,
Johns Hopkins University and the Success for All Foundation, January, 2010, 21 pp.
This study followed a group of LEP immigrant school children over a five-year period in an effort to determine whether English immersion or bilingual education produced stronger educational outcomes. No significant differences could be found, leading the researchers to conclude "that what matters most...is the quality of instruction, not the language of instruction. Schools may choose to teach English language learners in either their native language or in English for many reasons, including cultural, economic, or political rationales. Yet the claims that this choice is crucial for ultimate learning of English or Spanish reading are not supported by the data from this experiment."


Garden State Dreams: In-State Tuition for Undocumented Kids,
New Jersey Policy Perspective, January, 2010, 12 pp.
This policy brief argues for the passage of in-state tuition legislation in New Jersey, citing its economic and social benefits to the state. Such legislation would encourage Latino students, already suffering from high drop-out rates, to stay in high school and graduate. It would also ease the burden on undocumented families, among the lowest income earners in the state, trying to cover the escalating cost of public college tuition in New Jersey, now the second highest in the nation, and do it without access to state financial assistance. The legislation would also encourage high-ranking students to continue their education in New Jersey, rather than seeking admission and scholarship assistance from private colleges in other states. Finally, the author sees benefits for all New Jersey residents from students achieving their potential, getting good jobs, paying taxes, and spending money to stimulate the economy.

In-State Tuition for Undocumented Students and the DREAM Act,
Voices for Utah Children, October, 2009, 19 pp.
A multi-issue child advocacy organization, Voices for Utah Children produced this report with support from the Annie E. Casey Foundation. The report provides an informative account of the history and political dynamics of in-tuition legislation in the State of Utah - legislation which has withstood numerous attempts at repeal since first passed in 2002. The report summarizes the arguments on both sides of the issue, discusses pending court challenges to similar legislation in California and Kansas, and urges passage of the federal DREAM Act to settle the issue once and for all.

Language and Education: The Missing Link,
Save the Children and the CfBT Education Trust, 2009, 62 pp.
Focusing on children in low and middle income countries, this report highlights the significance of instructional language in educational outcomes. Despite the “clear agreement” among educators and linguistic experts that teaching in the mother tongue or first language of children provides a stronger foundation for educational success, there are 2.4 billion people around the world who speak languages that are seldom used in the classroom. Children from rural areas are particularly disadvantaged by this omission. The authors contend that such practices lead to high drop-out rates and fuel social unrest, particularly in countries with high levels of linguistic diversity and ethnic conflict. The authors suggest “at least six years of mother tongue education (in the primary grades), with the gradual introduction of other languages from an early stage.” The report faults donor agencies, particularly in the U.S. and U.K, for not devoting sufficient attention to this issue, and praises countries like the Philippines for their commitment to the use of mother tongues in the classroom.


Listening to Latinas: Barriers to High School Graduation,
National Women's Law Center & Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund, August, 2009, 43 pp.
Noting that Latinas are dropping out of school in alarming numbers, the authors of this report bring the voice of Latina students to the educational policy debate. Based on a non-random survey sample of 335 Latina high school students, of whom 90 were foreign-born, enrolled in ten schools and centers around the country, and follow-up, in-person interviews and focus group sessions with 47 of these students, the report explores the barriers that limit educational attainment and life chances for Latina girls. The report concludes with a range of recommendations for Congress, the U.S. Department of Education, states, local communities, school administrators and teachers to address these problems.


Children of Immigrants:  National and State Characteristics,
The Urban Institute, August, 2009, 18 pp
Based on data from the 2005 and 2006 American Community Survey, this research brief examines the growing number of immigrant children in the nation's schools. Nationally, the number doubled from 8 million in 1990 to 16.4 million in 2007 -- representing 23% of all children from age 0 to 17.  Seventy-three percent (73%) of all these children lived in the "big six" states of California, Texas, New York, Florida, Illinois, and New Jersey.  The authors opine that "children of immigrants deserve special attention because they face many universal risk factors to children's well-being, such as lower parental education and family incomes" as well as "factors unique to immigration, such as lack of parental citizenship and English proficiency." A companion web tool enables user to obtain more detailed data about individual states.


Legal Issues for School Districts Related to the Education of Undocumented Children,
National Education Association and National School Boards Association, 2009, 30 pp.
This publication addresses 13 questions that school districts face related to the education of undocumented children, including such issues as enrollment policy (when parents live outside the district), student participation in extracurricular activities, student access to specialized services, school custodial responsibilities after ICE workplace raids, and policies surrounding B-2 (Tourist) visa holders. The publication has been sent to every school district in the country and has been endorsed by 16 national professional education associations.


Fulfilling the Promise of Preschool for All: Insights into Issues Affecting Access for Selected Immigrant Groups in Chicago,
The Urban Institute, 2009, 37 pp
In July 2006, Illinois passed the landmark Preschool for All (PFA) program, designed to ensure access for all 3- and 4-year-old children to 2 ½ hours of free, quality early childhood education. As the program is voluntary in nature, special efforts have been made to enroll the most vulnerable children, including children of immigrant parents. This study focuses on two communities of lower incidence (less numerous) immigrant families in Chicago: Nigerian and Pakistani. The authors draw a number of conclusions from their work, including the importance of considering the specific needs and concerns of particular immigrant communities in outreach efforts, rather than assuming that all immigrants are alike.
 

Quality Benchmark for Cultural Competence Project,
National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC), June, 2009, 25 pp.
Through extensive discussion with stakeholders and experts in the early childhood field, and with support from A. L. Mailman Family Foundation, NAEYC produced this tool to assess the level of cultural competence within early childhood programs participating in quality rating and improvement systems being implemented in 19 states. NAEYC proposes seven key approaches for consideration by the field, including "...build(ing) upon the home languages and dialects of the children, families and staff in programs and support the preservation of home languages." The report includes a matrix that explicates each approach, gives ideas for implementation, and suggests possible measurements.


Quality Rating Improvement Systems for a Multi-Ethnic Society,
Issue Brief, Early Childhood Funders Collaborative (Build Initiative), 2009, 12 pp.
Noting that we should "measure what we treasure," this brief calls attention to the importance of culture, language, and anti-bias education in early chidlhood programs. Reviewing the Quality Rating Improvement Systems (QRIS) currently in operation in16 states, the authors find scant attention to cultural and linguistic factors in these accountability systems. The brief defines five elements of program quality related to language and culture:  multiculturalism, gender, language development, family involvement, and anti-bias, and asserts that these components are integral to overall program quality.


Young Dual Language Learners, A Key Topic Resource List,
Child Care and Early Education Research Connections, June, 2009, 12 pp.

This list contains one-sentence summaries of, and links to,  reports, papers, briefs, summaries, and reviews of research pertaining to the education of young dual language learners.  Among questions covered in the research are: the developmental benefits or drawbacks of children learning two languages, the academic outcomes of children participating in bilingual education programs compared to those in monolingual English immersion programs, the home language and literacy practices of non-English-speaking families, and effective strategies for engaging immigrant families in supporting their children's education. 


Partnering with Parents and Families to Support Immigrant and Refugee Children at School,
Center for Health and Health Care in Schools, The George Washington University, June, 2009, 15 pp.
This issue brief discusses the "Caring Across Communities" initiative of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, a project that is spurring the development of 15 model school-based programs across the United States designed to address the "unique emotional and behavioral health issues" of immigrant and refugee children from low-income families. Supported with grants totaling $4.5 million, all programs are experimenting with innovative ways of reaching out to immigrant families and communities, on the assumption that healthy families, fully engaged in the educational process, are crucial to the emotional health and education success of immigrant children.


Immigrant Families, English Language Learners, and the Future of Educational Reform,
Recorded Panel Discussion, The Urban Institute, May 21, 2009, 2 hours
In this discussion, a panel of six experts assessed the progress that American schools have made in educating immigrant children. The low graduation rate of English language learners was a particular area of concern. Among issues covered by the panelists were: the influence of neighborhood poverty on student achievement, problems with current assessment procedures, the challenge of disseminating effective strategies used by high performing schools, and the formulation of new policy approaches in the context of the ongoing congressional debate over the reauthorization of the No Child Left Behind Act.


Young Lives on Hold:  The College Dreams of Undocumented Students,
College Board, April, 2009, 27 pp.
Noting that 15% of the undocumented population in the United States is comprised of children, many of whom have spent most of their formative years and received most of their schooling in the United States, the College Board bemoans the waste of human potential involved in denying them opportunities to move on to higher education, drive, vote, and work in the United States. The Board urges passage of the bipartisan "Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors Act" (The Dream Act) to enable qualified young people who graduate from high school and who have lived in the U.S. since childhood to acquire legal status if they go to college or join the military. The report sees no adverse impact on native-born students in the ten states that permit undocumented students to attend college at in-state tuition rates.


English Learners in Boston Public Schools:  Enrollment, Engagement and Academic Outcomes, AY2003-AY2006,
The Mauricio Gaston Institute for Latino Community Development and Public Policy, University of Massachusetts, Boston, April, 2009, 126 pp.
This report examines the impact of the English Only movement in Massachusetts. After approval of a referendum by Massachusetts voters in 2002, sheltered English immersion (SEI) programs -- not to exceed one year in length -- became the default strategy for transitioning limited English proficient (LEP) students into the academic mainstream. Transitional bilingual education (TBE) programs were discontinued, unless at least 20 parents requested waivers and received approvals from local school districts. This report examines the experience of the Boston school district and its English language learners during the post-referendum period. In the beginning, Boston shifted 45.2% of its LEP students into mainstream classes. The district also adopted a "discouraging approach to parental waivers," thereby reducing the availability of other educational options, including TBE. As a result, drop-out rates increased, and the number of LEP students in special education classes more than doubled.  The report contains many recommendations for systemic improvements in Boston's education of English language learners.

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Recommendations for Addressing the Needs of English Language Learners, Center for Applied Linguistics, March 20, 2009, 23 pp.
Prepared by a national work group of 14 experts familiar with research findings and best practices in the education of immigrant children, this report describes how the stimulus act can be utilized to improve schooling for English language learners. Noting that these students "represent a large proportion of students at risk of underachievement," the authors make over 50 recommendations designed to take advantage of the short-term duration of this funding.  Many are focused on building infrastructure and a stronger evidence base for future educational reform, including modifications to the No Child Left Behind Act.

Dual Language Learners in the Early Years: Getting Ready to Succeed in School,
National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition, November, 2008, 45 pp.
Dual language learners are defined as "children from 3 to 6 years of age who are learning a second languagae while still acquiring their first."  Looking at general indicators of readiness for school, this report finds that dual language learners are at special risk for falling behind their monolingual peers.  Reviewing relevant research, the report outlines ways to better prepare these children for school, to conduct appropriate assessment and to design effective instructional strategies.

Teaching English Language Learners: What the Research Does -- and Does Not -- Say, American Educator, Summer, 2008, 19 pp.
One in nine students in the US is an English language learner. What's the best way to help these students become fluent in English and master the academic content? Existing research cannot fully answer that question, but it can offer teachers some guidelines. Focusing on two recent reviews of that research, Claude Goldenberg, Professor of Education at Stanford University, highlights the most promising instructional approaches and discusses important questions that the research has yet to answer.

Challenging Common Myths About Young English language Learners, Foundation for Child Development, January, 2008, 11 pp.
Produced by the Foundation's New American Children initiative, this report challenges six myths often associated with the education of young immigrant children, including the supposed advantages of total English immersion as an educational strategy and the assumption that Latino parents undervalue the importance of pre-kindergarten education.

Immigrant Integration Educator Resource Guide, The Colorado Trust and the Colorado Department of Education, 2008, 48 pp.
This guide provides an overview of the key areas that influence immigrant integration in schools - from school enrollment, culture and classroom instruction to family and community outreach. The guide contains links to useful resources in each of the main topical areas. Although state-specific to Colorado, the Guide is noteworthy for its use of immigrant integration as a frame for analyzing the immigrant school experience.

New Jersey Immigrant Kids Count 2007: A Profile of Child Well-Being, Association for Children of New Jersey, 2007, 25 pp.
This report provides an array of informative data about the circumstances of children in immigrant families with helpful comparisons to non-immigrant children both in New Jersey and nationally.

Education Rights of Immigrant Students and Families,
New Jersey Immigration Policy Network, 2007, 11 pp.
Intended for dissemination to immigrant parents in foreign language, this booklet provides a summary of key legal and constitutional rights of immigrant students under both federal and state law. Produced in collaboration with the Statewide Parent Advocacy Network, the booklet is used as a tool in parent training workshops.

New Jersey's Special Review Assessment:  Loophole or Lifeline? A Policy Brief,
The Graduate Center, CUNY, Education Law Center, Institute on Law and Education Policy (Rutgers University), Project Grad, August, 2007, 68 pp.
Students for whom English is not their first language often struggle to pass standardized tests, especially high stakes high school graduation exams. Many states provide alternative assessments to prove the mastery of core skills. New Jersey's proposal to discontinue its "special review assessment," on grounds that it represented "institutionalized low expectations" prompted the issuance of this multi-agency report, one of whose recommendation is that New Jersey "continue to offer multiple assessment routes to graduation."

Paying the Price: The Impact of Immigration Raids on America's Children, A Report by The Urban Institute for the National Council of La Raza, 2007, 99 pp.
This study examines the impact of workplace immigration raids on 500 children in three communities:  Greeley, Colorado; Grand Island, Nebraska; and New Bedford, Massachusetts. The disruption of family life, loss of family income, and resulting dislocation create emotional turmoil in the lives of these children, most of whom are U.S. citizens. As the pace of immigrant enforcement is likely to intensify in future years, the report gives policy recommendations to Congress, ICE, schools, social service and public agencies.

Double the Work: Challenges and Solutions to Acquiring Language and Academic Literacy for Adolescent English Language Learners, Report to Carnegie Corporation of New York, 2007, 83 pp.
Middle and high schools are seeing expanding enrollments of students whose primary language is not English. These students must perform "double the work" of native English speakers, i.e. learning English while mastering core academic content areas. This report recommends an array of best practices and strategies for surmounting the major educational challenges faced by limited English proficient students.

The Challenges to Multiculturalism in Massachusetts, The Mauricio Gaston Institute for Latino Public Policy and Community Development, University of Massachusetts, 2006, 10 pp
An anti-bilingual education referendum was approved by the voters of Massachusetts in November of 2002. The referendum read, in part, "The current state law providing for transitional bilingual education in public schools will be replaced with a law requiring that, with limited exceptions, all public school children must be taught English by being taught all subjects in English and being placed in English language classrooms." This report analyzes the tactics of referendum sponsors, media coverage, and - through the use of focus groups --  the thinking of voters on this important issue. (Abstract reposted through agreement with the Immigrant Learning Center and the Immigration Research and Information web site)

Developing Literacy in Second-Langauge Learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth, SRI International and the Center for Applied Linguistics, 2006, 15 pp (Executive Summary only)
This report summarized the findings of a four-year, $1.8 million dollar study funded by the fedederal Department of Education "to identify, assess, and synthesize research on the education of language-minority children and youth with regard to literacy attainment and to produce a comprehensive report on this literature." One of the key findings was that students instructed in native language as well as in English attain higher rates of English reading proficiency. The finding held true at both the elementary and high school levels. Because of the controversial nature of this finding, the Bush Administration declined to publish the study.


Effects of the Implementation of Proposition 227 on the Education of English Learners, K-12: Findings from a Five-year Evaluation,
American Institutes for Research, January 24, 2006, 228 pp.
This state-mandated, five-year study of California's Proposition 227 found no conclusive evidence that one instructional model for educating English learners, such as full English immersion or a bilingual approach, is more effective for English learners than another. The factors identified as most critical to their success were: staff capacity to address English learners' linguistic and academic needs; school wide focus on English language development and standards-based instruction; shared priorities and expectations in educating English learners and systematic, ongoing assessment and careful data use to guide instruction.

A Look at Immigrant Youth:  Prospects and Promising Practices, National Conference of State Legislatures, Children's Policy Initiative, March, 2005, 18 pp.
This report analyzes the barriers facing immigrant youth, resources available from the federal government to address those barriers, and requirements under the No Child Left Behind Act for LEP students. Among the promising practices reviewed in the report are newcomer programs, after school programs, and parental involvement approaches.

Denied at the Door: Language Barriers Block Immigrant Parents from School Involvement, Advocates for Children of New York and the New York Immigration Coalition, February 19, 2004, 55 pp.
Based on a survey of immigrant parents and students in the New York City School System, this report documents widespread failure to communicate in native language with immigrant parents. Without parental involvement in the education process, students will be deprived of parental support and schools will not have the full cooperation of parents.

Integrating Students of Limited English Proficiency into Standards-Based Reform in the Abbott Districts, Education Law Center, 2004, 59 pp.
This resource guide helps school administrators and teachers understand the special problems and challenges facing students of limited English proficiency attending school in New Jersey's 30 Abbott districts. The guide summarizes effective instructional practices and gives examples of successful schools.

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