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Arranged in order of publication date with the most recent on top. Scroll down for all entries. Selection does not imply endorsement of research findings by Diversity Dynamics, its partner organizations, or our content contributors. We regret that we may not be able to repair broken links promptly

Educational success is a vital goal for the children of immigrants, whether born in the U.S. or in other countries. Immigrant children now constitute 27% of all children under the age of 18 in the United States. Many do not speak English well, have parents with limited education, live in poverty, and have experienced trauma in their lives. Immigrant children present a special set of challenges to educators, some of whom have acquired the knowledge and skills to address their needs. At the same time, immigrant children possess important bicultural assets that can be leveraged in the educational process. Clearly, the schools are an important setting in the work of immigrant integration. This collection highlights research illuminating ways in which these educational challenges have been addressed. 


Refining State Accountability Systems for English Learner Success,
Migration Policy Institute, January 2024, 51 pp.
Authors: Megan Hopkins et al

This detailed empirical study looks at how state K-12 accountability systems, which center on students’ academic outcomes in English language arts (ELA) and math assessments, can be better correlated with English Learners’ (EL’s) progress in English language proficiency (ELP). This relationship often isn’t taken into account when reporting EL outcome data in academic subject areas. Analyzing quantitative data from two states (Hawaii and Ohio), the researchers offered two potential statistical approaches to painting a clearer picture of ELs’ status (current year performance) and growth (progress over time). The first approach, looking at current performance, used a regression analysis to look at student performance on academic content as a function of ELP. This approach, the study finds, offers clearers insights into how ELs are performing in academic content areas and thus how schools are serving them. The second approach, centered on growth, found that a time-varying covariate (TVC) statistical model significantly improved correlations of estimated school effects between growth in content knowledge and progress toward ELP, increasing the likelihood that test scores capture a schools’ true contribution to student learning. In addition, an analysis of qualitative data from stakeholder focus groups and interviews in 18 states identified four sets of indicators considered useful for better understanding school effectiveness. These include program models (bilingual vs. English-only approaches), teacher qualifications, participation in educational opportunities, and family engagement. The findings from this research, the researchers argue, call for federal policy changes to better support ELs, including: requiring states improve program quality indicators in their accountability systems; supporting development of more nuanced statistical models and data systems that take into account ELP when analyzing academic outcomes; and guidance for states on EL teaching strategies in response to improved accountability measures. Getting accountability right will enable school leaders to better target resources and improve how schools serve ELs, and lead to improvement in accountability overall. (Jeffrey Gross, Ph.D.)

ESSER: Moving the Needle on Equitable and Adequate Education Funding for English Learners,
Migration Policy Institute, July 2023, 16 pp.
Authors: Jasmin Flores Peña et al

This brief looks at how COVID-19-impacted school districts across the country have used $189.5 billion in Elementary and Secondary School Emergency Relief (ESSER) funds to support English learners (ELs), a rapidly growing and already underserved population of students that suffered disproportionate academic setbacks during the pandemic. The authors also explore how ESSER funds have helped districts invest in structural changes and resources to support ELs that go beyond pandemic response, addressing gaps in federal funding for English learner programs that has remained flat over the past 20 years. Based on interviews with school administrators in California, Georgia, Illinois, Minnesota, and Tennessee, the brief profiles a range of efforts to support ELs’ academic recovery, social-emotional learning, student re-engagement, and teacher retention. Examples highlighted include expanded tutoring programs in Chicago to assist ELs with academic content and language development, and a Navigator program in Nashville that helps connect students and their families with needed support and resources. Other initiatives discussed include using ESSER funds to purchase language development software, enhance family engagement and outreach to re-engage students, hire bilingual staff, and support educators in obtaining credentials to teach ELs. The question remains, the authors note, whether school districts will be able to sustain these efforts once disbursal of ESSER funds ends in September 2024. In closing, the brief calls for increases in federal, state and local government support for ELs; the scaling up of evidence-based programming and strategies; and improved tracking, evaluation and information sharing at federal, state and local levels of the impact of ESSER investments. (Jeffrey Gross, Ph.D.)


Unlocking Opportunities: Supporting English Learners’ Equitable Access to Career and Technical Education,
Migration Policy Institute, April 2023, 25 pp.
Author: Julie Sugarman

Based on an extensive literature review and interviews with state and local Career and Technical Education (CTE) leaders in four states, this wide-ranging report looks at challenges facing English learners (ELs) in accessing the widely recognized benefits of K-12 CTE programs, and how states and localities can support students and schools in this process. ELs, who have among the lowest average 4-year high school graduation rates, stand particularly to gain from CTE programs in meeting expectations of “college and career readiness” and persisting in school until graduation. The 2018 reauthorization of the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act (the primary source of CTE funding) set stricter requirements to foster and track the participation of special populations in CTE programs, including ELs. In most states, ELs are enrolled in CTE in proportion to their share of the population. But lack of local data makes it hard to gauge which individual schools or districts face under- or over-enrollment, and whether various subgroups of ELs are proportionally benefitting from CTE instruction. Challenges schools and EL students face include the complexity of scheduling CTE courses around existing academic and remedial course requirements, obstacles to completing required sequences of CTE courses towards industry credentials, and lack of understanding of ELs by CTE instructors. Among recommendations in the report offers are: required training of CTE instructors in issues facing ELs, co-teaching by English language instructors and CT specialists that can meet the needs of both content areas, better coordination of services by CTE instructors, English language staff, and school counselors, and more direct support by EL departments using their own available resources around careers and workforce training. Schools, the report suggests, can also work with adult education and workforce programs to provide access to additional training and job opportunities, and provide more flexibly scheduled learning opportunities for working students, as well as giving students work-based learning credit for jobs they already have. With schools focused on an equitable post-pandemic recovery, the report concludes, such strategies can help meet educational goals for all students. (Jeffrey Gross, Ph.D.)


Apprenticeship Programs Are a Promising Solution to Bring More Multilingual Workers into Early Childhood Field,
Migration Policy Institute, November 2022, 4 pp.
Authors:  Jacob Hofstetter et al

Early childhood education and care (ECEC) systems in the U.S. lost more than 100,000 workers and 12,000 programs during the COVID-19 pandemic. What is more, families with children who are dual language learners (DLLs) -- approximately one third of all families using the ECEC system -- face special challenges in accessing these services. In “Apprenticeship Programs Are a Promising Solution to Bring More Multilingual Workers into Early Childhood Field,” the authors make the point that apprenticeship programs represent a promising solution, bringing more multilingual workers into the ECEC field in a way that makes the best use of their skills and provides them with a living wage. Immigrants already make up a significant share of the ECEC workforce, although concentrated in lower-skilled and lower-paying jobs. Apprenticeships programs are a proven method of career advancement: 93 percent of those who complete them find employment with an average salary of $77,000 per year. Based on successful models in some states, the authors discuss several strategies to boost immigrant participation in apprenticeship programs.  These include curriculum adjustments to attract and serve more immigrant apprentices and those who speak languages other than English, partnerships with local organizations to help develop effective bridge or preparatory programs, and legislative options that could provide more relevant research and best practices for those interested in building early childhood apprenticeship programs. 

Dual Language Learners: Key Characteristics and Considerations for Early Childhood Programs
Migration Policy Institute, October 2022
Authors: Ivan Tú Nhi Giang & Maki Park

This series of 25 state fact sheets discuss the demographics and major characteristics of families with children who are dual language learners (DLLs), i.e. young children with at least one parent who speaks a language other than English at home. Among the topics covered are: languages spoken, household income, parental education levels, and access to the internet and computers. One-third of all U.S. children are DLLs, but many states have percentages that are much higher.  DLLs benefit greatly from early childhood programs that support their language development and academic performance, but many barriers prevent their participation in these programs.  These fact sheets, based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey for the 2015-2019 period, are intended to accompany a policy brief from the Migration Policy Institute entitled, 
Overlooked but Essential: Language Access in Early Childhood Programs

Overlooked but Essential: Language Access in Early Childhood Programs,
Migration Policy Institute, October 2022, 20 pp.
Authors: Maki Park et al

In the United States, one-third of children aged five and under are Dual Language Learners (DLLs). Among these children, nearly half have at least one parent who is not proficient in English. “Overlooked but Essential: Language Access in Early Childhood Programs” examines language access-related policies in major early childhood education and care (ECEC) programs at federal and state levels. The brief also identifies disparities in access to these programs and suggests strategies to reduce these disparities. Using survey data drawn from MPI’s National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy, the report highlights the increasing linguistic diversity of DLLs’ families as well as the lack of available data that could inform language access efforts. The brief further examines ECEC programs’ language access requirements and explores the disparities in access between DLL and non-DLL children. Although inclusion of language access in law and policy is critical, the brief states that it is insufficient, and recommends changes that prioritize policy, planning and coordination efforts, while providing space to create sustainable efforts that ensure quality monitoring and evaluation. These steps include using reliable data to identify DLL children in state data systems, integrating language service requirements with clear accountability mechanisms, and partnering with culturally specific, community-based organizations to provide linguistically responsive services to families and workers. (Stephanie Depauw for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute


English Learner Testing during the Pandemic: An Early Readout and Look Ahead
Migration Policy Institute, May 2022, 26 pp.
Author: Melissa Lazarin

During the 2020-2021 academic year, English learners (ELs) in 19 California school districts experienced a learning lag of 3.1 months in math and 3.8 months in English language arts. This was not unique to the state. Across the U.S., ELs experienced disproportionately large deficits in their learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. English Learner Testing During the Pandemic: An Early Readout and Look Ahead presents an overview of the experience of ELs in the United States during the 2020-2021 academic year based on state-wide and other assessments and recommends strategies to support ELs in their recovery from the pandemic. Data drawn from various sources, including the U.S. Department of Education and state education agencies, examine how states approached summative assessments during this academic year. The report stresses the limitations of the summative assessment data, as modifications varied greatly among states, coupled with an absence of missing student data compared to previous years. The authors argue that this data, although limited, are still beneficial to use if coupled alongside other metrics, as it stands as an important level for equity shared to the broader public. The report also tackles the issue of remote learning and its impact on ELs during this academic year and finds that such learning disproportionally and negatively impacted ELs due to inequitable access to technology and digital literacy gaps. The report offers strategies to support ELs in educational recovery plans, such as investing in content-focused professional development and ensuring the proper staffing of high-dosage tutoring programs. (Stephanie Depauw for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)

Advancing Digital Equity among Immigrant-Origin Youth
Migration Policy Institute, February 2022, 42 pp.
Authors: Essey Workie et al

Given the important role of technology in education, as well as in the broader integration of immigrant families, this study identifies promising practices for increasing digital access and literacy among youth ages 15 to 17 who are immigrants themselves or have at least one immigrant parent, a group referred to as immigrant-origin youth. In 2021, Migration Policy Institute (MPI) researchers interviewed educators, staff of refugee resettlement agencies, community leaders, and library and information technology (IT) professionals working in Arizona, California, Georgia, Maryland, Tennessee, Texas, and Utah. The research team examined how students and teachers adjusted to the COVID-19 pandemic, the extent to which digital tools and training are available to immigrant-origin youth residing in lower-income areas, and opportunities to strengthen collaborations between people in the fields of education, immigrant integration, and telecommunications. After listing eight key findings from the study, the report makes a series of recommendations for ways the federal government, school systems, refugee resettlement programs, and other immigrant-serving organizations can increase access to digital tools and literacy among immigrant-origin youth.

Taking Stock of Dual Language Learner Identification and Strengthening Procedures and Policies,
Migration Policy Institute, May 2021, 26 pp.
Authors: Melissa Lazarin & Maki Park

Dual language learners (DLLs) comprise one-third of all children under the age of five in the United States, yet a lack of clear policies and procedures make DLL identification and tracking difficult to undertake. This report, Taking Stock of Dual Language Learner Identification and Strengthening Procedures and Policies, highlights the difficulties and varying approaches to collecting data for DLLs across the United States. The authors examine current efforts to identify DLLs at the federal, state and local levels. Reviewing data from various state education departments, the report singles out Illinois, New York, California, Minnesota and Pennsylvania as important innovators and leaders in their efforts to improve DLL identification procedures. The authors suggest that in order to advance the development of a comprehensive DLL identification system, additional guidance to implement pre-existing recommendations is necessary at the federal level. Meanwhile, at the state level, improvement of entry-level assessments as well as increased collaboration across disparate siloes is essential. The report further emphasizes that challenges must be recognized and addressed for forward-looking steps to be successfully taken. (Stephanie Depauw for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)

Ending the Invisibility of Dual Language Learners in Early Childhood Systems: A Framework for DLL Identification,

Migration Policy Institute, May 2021, 12 pp.
Authors: Maki Park & Delia Pompa

Given the United States’ diverse demographic makeup, it is no surprise that many American households speak languages other than English. In “Ending the Invisibility of Dual Language Learners in Early Childhood Systems: A Framework for DLL Identification,” authors Maki Park and Delia Pompa argue that despite the large population of children growing up in such households, information about dual language learners (DLLs) is scarce, and few policies are in place addressing their distinct learning needs. The purpose of this issue brief, a companion piece to an MPI 
report on the same subject, is twofold: first, to offer recommendations that will allow local, state and federal actors to gather information about DLLs; and second, to develop policies and practices to ensure that DLLs are supported in their learning during their early years. To achieve these goals, the authors identify existing gaps in data and information-gathering procedures regarding bilingual learners and propose a variety of frameworks to fill these gaps. These include identifying children that come from dual-language households; collecting data about their language and learning environments; and making this information accessible to K-12 programs, their educators and policymakers. Through these practical measures, this issue brief offers ways to make the needs and experiences of bilingual learners visible, and thereby enhance equity in their learning outcomes and in the educational systems serving them. (Sonali Ravi for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)

Immigrant and U.S.-Born Parents of Young and Elementary-School-Age Children: Key Sociodemographic Characteristics,
Migration Policy Institute, April 2021, U.S. and State Fact Sheets
Authors: Jacob Hofstetter & Margie McHugh

If parents, especially those of young children, play a key role in supporting their children’s education, the transition to remote learning during the Covid-19 pandemic made parental involvement in children’s schooling even more crucial. This fact sheet, entitled “Immigrant and U.S.-Born Parents of Young and Elementary-School-Age Children: Key Sociodemographic Characteristics,” examines the barriers faced by immigrant parents, compared to native-born parents, in supporting their young children’s education. To do so, authors Jacob Hofstetter and Margie McHugh draw from U.S. Census Bureau data concerning immigrant and U.S.-born parents of children aged 0 to 4 and 5 to 10. Drawing from the Migration Policy Institute’s wider study on parents of children under 18, this fact sheet examines sociodemographic characteristics of parents including education levels, English proficiency, employment, income and digital access. The authors found that immigrant parents face significantly more obstacles than U.S.-born parents in supporting their children’s school readiness and educational success over the longer term, due to the barriers that immigrant parents themselves face. These impediments include low levels of formal education, limited English proficiency, poverty, and barriers to digital access, all of which exacerbate educational inequity. Especially as online instruction during the pandemic required the direct involvement of parents in young children’s learning, this study highlights the need for systems designed to support the twin needs of immigrants parents as well as children, as the former is inextricably linked to the latter’s educational success. (Sonali Ravi for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)

Funding English Learner Education: Making the Most of Policy and Budget Levers,
Migration Policy Institute, March 2021, 30 pp.
Author: Julie Sugarman

Budgeting for equity in schools is critical for realizing the promise of equal opportunity for all students in the United States. As school systems navigate the recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to prioritize English Learners (ELs), and their unique learning needs. Title III of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is an important source of funding for ELs, but not the only one, as the potential sources of funding are quite complex. This brief, written by Julie Sugarman of the Migration Policy Institute, outlines how actors at the federal, state, and local level, including Congress, the U.S. Department of Education, state education agencies, districts and schools, and community members, can ensure adequate funding for EL education. The brief also explains how budget and policy mechanisms can be used to support ELs with examples such as increasing Title III funding, accessing unrestricted recovery funds, creating a system for effectively measuring service provision, creating partnerships with health and human services organizations, and participating in efforts to evaluate state funding. Ensuring the educational success of ELs, a diverse and growing student population, is a key requirement for a more equitable future. (The Immigration Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)

Diversity in Schools: Immigrants and the Educational Performance of U.S. Born Students,
National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2021
Authors: David N. Figlio et al

How do immigrants impact the educational achievement of U.S.-born students? Immigration rates have risen significantly in the United States over the past 50 years, with nearly 25 percent of public school students coming from an immigrant household in 2015. Using school records from the State of Florida, including the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) and Florida Bureau of Vital Statistics, the authors find that immigrant students do not negatively affect the performance of U.S.-born students, and in fact have a positive effect, particularly for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. (Stephanie Depauw for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)

Educating English Learners during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Policy Ideas for States and School Districts,
Migration Policy Institute, September 2020, 29 pp.
Authors: Julie Sugarman & Melissa Lazarin

The COVID-19 pandemic caused many schools around the U.S. to adopt some form of distance learning to stem the spread of the virus. Remote learning, however, impeded the academic progress of the nation’s five million English Learners (ELs). The nation’s largest school districts estimated that almost half of ELs did not log on for remote learning towards the end of the 2020 school year. As Julie Sugarman and Melissa Lazarin explain in “Educating English Learners during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Policy Ideas for States and School District,” many ELs missed school in part because they lacked the appropriate technology and internet access required for remote learning, and their families did not have the time or resources to help their children with schooling during the day. Experts warn that this interrupted schooling will have long-term negative consequences for students’ academic achievement. This brief, published by the Migration Policy Institute, provides policy recommendations for states and school districts to lessen the adverse impact of these months of online learning, with the goal that ELs receive the fair and equitable education promised to them under the law. For example, the authors recommend that EL students should be prioritized for in-person instruction when it is deemed safe and that services for ELs should be prioritized in school budgets. Owing to pre-existing structural factors, an achievement and opportunity gap already existed between ELs and their U.S.-born counterparts.  Without concerted and effective action in response to the current public health crisis, this gap will widen significantly in the coming years. (Deb D’Anastasio for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute) 


Supporting Immigrant and Refugee Families through Home Visiting: Innovative State and Local Approaches,
Migration Policy Institute, October 2020, 16 pp.
Author:  Caitline Katsiaficas

Home visiting programs are becoming a widely accepted way to provide social services to young children and their caretakers across the United States, but such programs are much less likely to reach immigrant households. Visitation programs are designed to support families, promote children’s health and wellbeing, and lead to positive long-term outcomes. For immigrant and refugee families, home visiting can offer integration-related support such as helping parents navigate health and social service systems or cope with migration-related trauma, but immigrant families are less likely to be enrolled in home visiting programs than families with U.S.-born parents due to linguistic and cultural barriers. ”Supporting Immigrant and Refugee Families through Home Visiting: Innovative State and Local Approaches,” published by the Migration Policy Institute, outlines strategies adopted at the county and state levels to address this gap by looking at models in King County, Washington; San Diego County, California; and the states of Illinois and Massachusetts. These case studies suggest steps policymakers, practitioners and stakeholders can take to improve the reach and effectiveness of home visiting services for immigrant families. Strategies include explicitly including at-risk immigrant families in needs assessments and prioritizing services for them, incorporating community and service provider input into program design and making targeted investments to maximize services. Other measures include adjusting procurement policies for organizations, locating home visiting services at trusted community organizations and supporting research (data collection, evaluation, and capacity building) on successful service models. In this way, states and localities can boost equity in service provision while strengthening and broadening their reach into the community. (The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute) 

COVID-19 Spotlights the Inequities Facing English Learner Students, as Nonprofit Organizations Seek to Mitigate Challenges,
Migration Policy Institute, June 2020, 3 pp.
Author: Melissa Lazarín

In this report, the author highlights challenges English Learners face during the COVID-19 pandemic, such as the absence of reliable Internet access, food insecurity, the inability of immigrant essential workers to homeschool, and the lack of mental health support. In response to these challenges, as well as the lack of federal funds to assist students and schools that are most at risk, the author suggests that schools rely on nonprofit organizations that have relationships with immigrant families and that have stepped up their programming in response to the current crisis. For instance, the article mentions the Spring Institute, a provider of intercultural learning programs and services in Colorado, which partnered with the Denver Public Schools to distribute meals to refugee communities, and the Coalition of Asian American Leaders in Minnesota, which worked with public school systems in Saint Paul and Minneapolis to conduct outreach to families of ELs in their home language. The author emphasizes the importance of these programs as schools look to reopen with long lists of tasks and limited budgets to complete them.  (Jacob Lockledge for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Program)

The Patchy Landscape of State English Learner Policies under ESSA,
Migration Policy Institute, February 2020, 147 pp.
Authors:  Leslie Villegas & Delia Pompa

This study examines how states are responding to the requirements for supporting English Language learners as spelled out in the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015. The authors begin by noting the law was intended to improve the education of English Language learners (ELLs) by making them a discrete student population within standardized accountability measures. States were tasked with developing policies that integrated support for ELLs into planning for the system as a whole. The authors reviewed ESSA plans for each state, Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia. Based on their analysis, they conclude that there is a lack of consistency in how states are putting the ESSA mandates for English Language Learners in place. For example, states vary on how long students can receive language support because of differences in when the clock starts on those services. The authors suggest that this anomaly may be an issue with the law itself, rather than the states, and they point to a similar lack of guidelines on how to help students who need support beyond the allowable number of years. However, the authors do conclude that states bear some responsibility, as many of the plans make it hard to easily identify relevant ELL policies. In addition, they believe that existing state laws sometimes work to diminish the impact of policies intended to support ELLs.  Finally, the authors believe that using state-level demographics to evaluate the performance of the ELL student population is not adequate because they may not reveal important concentrations of particular language communities at the local level.  The authors conclude that a lot of work still needs to be done to ensure that ESSA is in fact helping ELLs succeed. 

Determinants of Health and Well-Being for Children of Immigrants: Moving From Evidence to Action,
Foundation for Child Development, October 9, 2019, 31 pp.
Authors: Lisseth Rojas-Flores & Jennifer Medina Vaughn

More than 18 million children in the United States, or one in four, have at least one immigrant parent, and this demographic is rapidly growing. In this study, researchers from the Foundation for Child Development suggest the use of a public health framework to address the needs of children in low-income, immigrant families. Using information from the FCD Young Scholars Program, the authors show that physical and mental health outcomes are affected by children’s socio-political context. Anti-immigrant rhetoric, discriminatory social practices, heightened immigration enforcement and recent policy changes like the “public charge” rule have negative educational and health consequences for children from immigrant families and limit their potential for life success. Given that this kind of trauma could ultimately prove costly to the larger society, including impeding the development of a skilled and robust workforce, the authors recommend a range of actions to safeguard the health and well-being of immigrant children, including greater attention to the social determinants of physical and mental health, increased support for immigrant parents, expansion of the safety net, and more inclusionary school policies. (Clare Maxwell for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)

Dos Métodos: Two Classroom Language Models in Head Start,
Urban Institute, October 2019, 39 pp.
Author: Carola Oliva-Olson

This study examined the outcomes for two models of language teaching in Head Start and Migrant Head Start. The first approach, English with home language support (EHLS), uses English as the main language of instruction and provides additional support for English Language Learners (e.g., translation, labeling, etc.). The second approach, dual language learning, intentionally and systematically uses English and a home language in equal measures in the classroom. To compare the efficacy of these approaches, the author analyzed data from 153 classrooms in California and Florida. Results suggest the dual language method is associated with improved proficiency in both English and the home language (in this case, Spanish). Another key finding was the impact of classroom organization. Regardless of the model, classrooms with lower levels of organization were associated with reduced development of both languages. For this reason, the author argues that teachers in Head Start and Migrant Head Start programs need much more professional development. In particular, the report concludes that teachers working in EHLS classrooms may not be fully prepared to help dual language learners develop their language skills in both languages. The author cautions that the analysis was based on self-reporting on the part of teachers and program administrators, and that future work should focus on third-party verification of the efficacy of various models. (Erik Jacobson, Montclair State University)

Preparing the Future Workforce:  Early Care and Education Participation among Children of Immigrants,
Urban Institute, March 2019, 38 pp.
Authors: Erica Greenberg et al

Early Childhood Education (ECE) programs such as Head Start and prekindergarten are crucial in supporting school readiness and improving long-term learning outcomes, yet children of immigrants take part in these programs less frequently than their peers with U.S.-born parents. This report examines efforts to reverse this trend, and argues that access to early childhood educational programs will impact the future workforce of the United States. Approximately one out of every four children in the country has an immigrant parent and so they will make up a substantial share of the future workforce. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, the report suggests that multiple barriers to ECE access prevent immigrant parents from enrolling their children in programs, leaving them at a disadvantage when they begin kindergarten. Barriers include language gaps, limited access to social welfare programs, and lack of information on available ECE opportunities and eligibility for immigrant families. Furthermore, children of immigrants who can access ECE programs show significant gains in reading, writing and math. The article notes that outreach and mentoring programs and greater bilingual access in schools are closing the learning outcomes gap, and suggests that programs build on these successes in order to prepare the future workforce. (Clare Maxwell for The ILC Public Education Institute)

Leveraging the Potential of Home Visiting Programs to Serve Immigrant and Dual Language Learner Families,
Migration Policy Institute, August 2019, 17 pp.
Authors: Maki Park & Caitlin Katsiaficas

Early childhood interventions, such as home-visit programs, can make significant differences in the welfare of young Dual Language Learners (DLLs). “Leveraging the Potential of Home Visiting Programs to Serve Immigrant and Dual Language Learner Families” explores the reasons why young DLLs often show poorer educational outcomes than their peers and presents strategies for using home visits as a way to ensure that these children have access to effective social supports. More than one in four children in the United States live in dual-language households, most of which are also immigrant families. These children are statistically more likely to have experienced poverty and trauma, and their parents often have low levels of education. This policy brief from the Migration Policy Institute underscores the fact that the federal Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) program can help families access social programming and information about care and education during critical periods of childhood development. The authors note that, while the program is effective, staff members need additional training to overcome language barriers and cultural differences and to understand the principles of trauma-informed care.  Other strategies might include: hiring more bilingual staff, focusing on immigrant communities in MIECHV needs assessments, improving program data collection, and strengthening partnerships with community-based organizations. The brief suggests that, with implementation of these reforms, the MIECHV program will be an important tool in improving outcomes for DLL children and families. (Clare Maxwell for the Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)

The Unintended Consequences for English learners of Using the Four-Year Graduation Rate for School Accountability,
Migration Policy Institute, April 2019, 38 pp.
Author:  Julie Sugarman

Current practices for evaluating high school graduation rates have a negative effect on immigrant students, specifically English Learners (ELs). The Unintended Consequences for English Learners Using the Four-Year Graduation Rate for School Accountability describes the characteristics of the EL student population, the ways they are served by schools, and the impact of evaluation practices mandated by the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015.  One of the most important markers of school success is high school graduation rates, which ESSA determines by the number of students who graduate in a four-year time frame. The author suggests that this standard creates incentives for school administrators to prevent older EL students from enrolling in traditional high schools. Although immigrant EL students are less likely to graduate within four years than their U.S.-born classmates, the disparity decreases significantly if ELs' graduation rates are measured within a five to six year time frame. Owing to ESSA standards, school districts channel ELs toward vocational or other alternative education pathways instead of remedial services and traditional diplomas. The report suggests that policymakers should be aware of these factors as they revisit the ESSA, focus on long-term data outcomes of ELs, and be open to making exceptions in accountability measures so ELs are not put at a disadvantage. (Deb D’Anastasio for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)

Mitigating the Effects of Trauma among Young Children of Immigrants and Refugees: The Role of Early Childhood Programs,
Migration Policy Institute, April 2019, 18 pp.
Authors: Maki Park & Caitlin Katsiaficas

Young children of immigrants and refugees and children who themselves were refugees in the United States are more likely than their peers to be affected by trauma. Yet, despite greater awareness of the need for early childhood programs and professionals to take a trauma-informed approach to service provision, their capacity to serve the children of immigrants and refugees is lacking. The Migration Policy Institute’s Mitigating the Effects of Trauma among Young Children of Immigrants and Refugees dispels ideas that infants and toddlers are too young to be affected by violence, or by the loss of family members. Authors Maki Park and Caitlin Katsiaficas use Census data and review available research to suggest the need for trauma-informed early childhood programs to address the unique mental health challenges faced by young children of immigrants and refugees. While trauma experienced in relation to migration can negatively affect immigrants of any age, the consequences for young children are particularly harmful. Moreover, due in part to racial basis, their symptoms are often misunderstood. The brief recommends a number of specific programs to better support healthy social and emotional development of children in immigrant families including home-visiting programs and standardized mental health screening instruments that are culturally and age appropriate. The authors emphasize the importance of collaboration among mental health systems, Early Childhood Education and Care providers, and organizations that serve immigrants and refugees as a way to mitigate the effects of complex trauma. (Olivia Pickard for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)

Legal Protections for K-12 English Learner and Immigrant-Background Students,
Migration Policy Institiute, June 2019, 25 pp.
Author:  Julie Sugarman

State, town and school district set educational policy in the U.S., with some degree of federal oversight. In order for English Learners (ELs) and immigrant-background students to have equitable access to a meaningful education, the U.S. government has established several legal requirements that local authorities must meet. This report by the Migration Policy Institute explains these requirements and how states and local districts carry them out. The author covers seven distinct rules that are contained in the Every Student Succeeds Act and other relevant national legislation. The rules are: all children have the right to free, public education regardless of immigration status; schools cannot share personal information about immigrant students and families without their permission; English Learners must have meaningful access to education; states must hold schools accountable for ensuring ELs achieve English proficiency and academic standards; schools must use data and evidence to make decisions; schools must communicate with parents and guardians in a language they understand; and schools must meaningfully engage parents and guardians of ELs. The author discusses practical aspects of implementation, including what benchmarks to use in evaluating results and who has responsibility for enforcing each rule. For each rule, she also discusses how school systems may have fallen short in compliance. She considers these protections the “floor” from which schools and districts can build additional supports for ELs. (Patrick Bloniasz for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)

Our Children’s Fears:  Immigration Policy’s Effects on Young Children,
Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP), March 2019, 40 pp.
Authors:  Wendy Cervantes et al

This report documents how young children in immigrant families, particularly the estimated 2 million children under the age of 5 who have at least one undocumented parent, “have had their worlds turned upside down" by Trump administration immigration policies.  Described as the “first multi-state study of its kind,” the report is based on interviews and focus groups with more than 150 early childhood educators and parents in six states – California, Georgia, Illinois, New Mexico, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania. The anecdotal evidence gathered by the researchers suggests that the cognitive and emotional development of these children is being severely impaired. Among the key findings are:  the daily routines of these children have been interrupted because fear is keeping families isolated in their homes – resulting in reduced access to early care and education programs. Young children have reduced access to nutrition and health care services as parents withdraw from these program in significant numbers. Some children, fearing that their parents will be taken away, have shown disturbing new behaviors, such as increased aggression and withdrawal from their environments. Finally, young children’s housing and economic stability are often compromised, as parents have more difficulty finding work and often change housing to avoid apprehension.  The report concludes with a series of recommendations for federal, state, and local policymakers, as well as the philanthropic community, to ensure that children in immigrant families, a group important to the future of the nation, “are held paramount in immigration policy decisions.” One recommendation is that Congress and DHS should expand and consistently enforce the sensitive locations policy to restrict enforcement actions at or near places that are critical to children’s health and wellbeing. Another is that Congress should pass legislation providing a pathway to citizenship to undocumented immigrants, including parents and Dreamers.

Minnesota’s Superdiverse and Growing Dual Language Learner Child Population,
Migration Policy Institute, November 2018, 42 pp.
Authors: Caitlin Katsiaficas & Maki Park

Minnesota is experiencing a “diversification of diversity” due to its growing immigrant and refugee populations. About 21 percent of children ages zero to eight have parents who speak a language other than English, and there are hundreds of languages spoken across the state. From 2011 to 2015, there were 136,000 of these Dual Language Learners (DLLs) from diverse backgrounds, including many children from refugee backgrounds. Of these DLLs, 32 percent spoke Spanish, 10 percent spoke Hmong, and nine percent spoke Cushitic languages such as Somali and Oromo. Other widely-spoken languages included: Chinese, Vietnamese, and Arabic. This diversity has important implications for early childhood education and care (ECEC) policies and programs. In the research for this report, the Migration Policy Institute interviewed state ECEC policymakers and local service providers and analyzed U.S. Census Bureau data to determine demographic, linguistic and economic characteristics of these children and their families. The report also focuses on two understudied and diverse subgroups: Asian American and Pacific Islander (39,000) and Black (30,000) DLLs. The report finds that Minnesota has tried to improve access to ECEC including expanding its Voluntary Pre-Kindergarten (VPK) and School Readiness Plus programs. However, it concludes that challenges remain in ensuring that the ECEC workforce is prepared for the children it serves, that the needs of these children are properly identified and assessed, and that families are fully engaged with the educational process. It suggests that the state’s policymakers and administrators “improve system-wide capacities to provide equitable and effective services to children” of all backgrounds. 

The Resilience of Students with an Immigrant Background: Factors that Shape Well-being,
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 2018, 293 pp.

Migration flows are profoundly changing the composition of classrooms. Results from the OECD Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) reveal that in 2015, almost one in four 15-year-old students in OECD countries reported that they were either foreign-born or had at least one foreign-born parent. Between 2003 and 2015, the share of students who had either migrated or who had a parent who had migrated across international borders grew by six percentage points, on average across OECD countries. This report reveals some of the difficulties students with an immigrant background encounter and where they receive the support they need. The authors provide an in-depth analysis of the risk and protective factors that can undermine or promote the resilience of immigrant students. It explores the role that education systems, schools and teachers can play in helping these students integrate into their communities, overcome adversity, and build their academic, social, emotional and motivational resilience.

Responding to the ECEC Needs of Children of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Europe and North America,
Migration Policy Institute, April 2018, 65 pp.
Authors: Maki Park et al

In 2016, an unprecedented 65.6 million people were displaced worldwide; 22.5 million of them were refugees fleeing their home countries, and of that number, half were children. Responding to the ECEC Needs of Children of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Europe and North America reviews the results of a seven-country study of early childhood education and care (ECEC) policies and practices established to support refugee and asylum-seeking children in Belgium, Canada, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, Turkey and the United States. The report utilizes data from governmental and non-governmental sources, as well as findings from academic studies, to highlight the challenges facing these children, identify approaches to improve their academic performance, and provide readers with a set of actionable policy recommendations. While ECEC programs create an important basis for academic success and social integration, there is a widespread lack of national ECEC policies for refugee children. Moreover, training and resources for trauma-informed care “are almost universally lacking.” For instance, reception centers typically do not offer any activities for children age six and under. However, there are several programs that have developed effective strategies for working with these children. Mixed classrooms, coordinated efforts by interagency and community partners, and Germany’s whole-of-government approach to immigrant integration illustrate promising strategies that benefit children, families and societies as a whole. Given that the movement of displaced people does not appear to be abating, the authors suggest that policymakers take into account the significant role of ECEC programs in promoting newcomer integration and social cohesion. (Jasmina Popaja for The Immigrant Learning Center Public Education Institute)

A Matter of Design:  English Learner Program Models in K-12 Education,
Migration Policy Institute, Issue Brief, June 2018, 19 pp.
Author:  Julie Sugarman

There are approximately five million students in United States’ schools who are classified as English Learners (ELs).  They speak a wide variety of languages and are educated in different ways depending on the school they attend. In this Migration Policy Institute (MPI) brief, “A Matter of Design: English Learner Program Models in K-12 Education,” author Julie Sugarman outlines the most common K-12 educational models used to improve English proficiency and help ELs perform well academically:  dual language, bilingual/transitional bilingual, and English only.  The report also includes a guide to help administrators and teachers choose the model best suited to local circumstance. Dual language programs seek to build biliteracy in both the students’ home languages and in English with at least 50 percent of instruction taught in the home language. Bilingual/Transitional Bilingual models also utilize EL students’ home languages in the classroom but focus on building English proficiency and literacy. English-only programs focus on building literacy in English without the use of students’ home languages in instruction. According to the report, schools may choose different approaches to educating ELs based on factors like students’ needs, teacher availability, state policies, and/or educational research. Complicating matters further is the trend toward enlisting well trained, subject matter teachers as key participants in EL learning programs. Current research is inconclusive about which models benefit students best, so it is crucial to consider factors that can shape program effectiveness and outcomes. Given that the critical analysis of these models can be extensive, MPI recommends starting with the U.S. Department of Education Office of Civil Rights Castaneda standard, which requires instructional approaches be based on sound theory and demonstrated effectiveness, and be implemented with sufficient resources. (Deb D'Anastasio for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)

The Changing Family Structure of American Children with Unauthorized Parents,
IZA Institute of Labor Economics, November 2017, 46 pp.
Authors:  Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes & Esther Arenas-Arroyo
During the period from 2009 to 2013 alone, the U.S. carried out 1.8 million deportations, most of them involving fathers and heads of households. This paper examines the impact of these deportations on U.S.-born children, specifically the likelihood that they are now living in single-parent households or with friends or other family members. The authors cite literature showing that the absence of a parent increases school drop-out rates, raises teen pregnancy rates, and limits future earnings. Thus, they write, "gaining a better understanding of the impacts of intensified immigration enforcement on the families in which they grow up is well warranted." The researchers use a control group of foreign-born families with similar demographic characteristics but without the burden of undocumented status. They find "that a one standard deviation in the enforcement index (equal to the average level of immigration enforcement for the period under consideration) raises the children's propensity to reside without their parents in a household headed by naturalized relatives or friends by 18.8 percent."   The same set of circumstances increases the likelihood of living with their remaining undocumented parent (most often mothers) with absentee spouses by 20 percent.  These findings, according to the authors, are important to consider as the nation responds to the intensified immigration enforcement under the Trump administration.

Supporting Dual Language Learner Success in Superdiverse PreK-3 Classrooms: The Sobrato Early Academic Language Model,
Migration Policy Institute, March 2018, 30 pp.
Anya Hurwitz & Laurie Olsen
While the characteristics of monolingual, bilingual, or dual language classrooms for young children are widely understood and well covered in the educational literature, there appears to be an information void regarding the "superdiverse" classroom, defined by this study as one "with at least five language groups represented, and without a critical mass of any one language group in a classroom that would make dual-language/bilingual instruction feasible." Too often in these settings, the importance of primary language skills to English language development is overlooked or discounted. As a result, children who are English language learners often fall behind their English native peers. To overcome this neglect, the Sobrato Early Academic Language (SEAL) model, originally designed for PreK-3 classrooms in Spanish-speaking Hispanic communities, is being piloted in more than 100 schools across 20 districts in California. The SEAL model is not a curriculum or a program, but rather a model of comprehensive teacher development and school change resting on four pillars: the development of academic language, the creation of language-rich and affirming environments, alignment of preschool and K-3 systems, and strong partnerships between families and schools.  The study reports positive results, at least through the medium of teacher surveys, and suggests that the "superdiverse" classroom should be considered "a specific type of setting with specific practice and policy implications."

Language of the Classroom: Dual Language Learners in Head Start, Public Pre-K, and Private Preschool Programs,
Migration Policy Institute (MPI), March 2018, 31 pp.
Megina Baker & Mariela Páez
This report is one in a series of three reports produced by MPI examining the implications of "superdiverse" communities for early childhood education and care programs and systems. As of 2013, more than one in three children in the U.S. spoke a language other than English at home. Increasing levels of linguistic and cultural diversity among students in early childhood education and care (ECEC) require educators, even if they are not fluent in the home languages of their students, to know when and how to use home languages to facilitate English acquisition and promote appreciation of diversity. This report identifies best practices for promoting the learning and development of Dual Language Learner (DLL) students in linguistically diverse ECEC programs. The authors studied public, private and Head Start preschool programs in Boston, MA, where nearly half of four-year-olds were DLL children in 2014. Through interviews, surveys, focus groups with school personnel and parents and classroom observation, the authors found that teachers incorporated home languages into instruction in a variety of ways, including inviting family members into the classroom to read stories in home language, greeting routines in multiple languages, allowing other children to share their home language expertise, and using other staff members with bilingual expertise. The authors recommend training and professional development opportunities for educators to utilize home languages in creative ways in ECEC settings, and developing national and state policies that explicitly support this educational approach. (Sam Jones for The Immigrant Learning Center's Public Education Institute)

Growing Superdiversity among Young U.S. Dual Language Learners and Its Implications,
Migration Policy Institute, February 2018, 47 pp.
Authors: Maki Park et al

The United States is quickly becoming a more diverse nation, thanks in part to the increasing number of children born with at least one parent who speaks a language other than English. This report finds that these children, often referred to as Dual Language Learners (or DLLs), now account for almost one-third of all children in the United States between the ages of 0 and 8. Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2011-15 American Community Survey and the 2000 census, the authors find that the number of DLL children rose dramatically between 2000 and 2015. Additionally, the make-up of DLL children and their families is changing, with a wider variety of ethnic and racial identities, countries of origin, and languages spoken than in the past– a situation the authors refer to as “superdiversity.” The study also analyzes the great variations in DLLs backgrounds at the state and local levels. For example, 78 percent of DLLs in Texas speak Spanish as opposed to only 16 percent in Vermont. Because of the growing number of cultural and linguistic backgrounds in the DLL population, the authors outline some of the challenges that early childhood education and care facilities and K-12 schools face.  The study also calls for further research into effective pedagogical approaches, as well as strategies to increase family engagement in the educational process (Deb D’Anastasio for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute).

Rethinking English Learner Data: Illinois' Plans Under the Every Student Succeeds Act,
New America, January, 2018, 16 pp.
Author:  Janie Tankard Carnock
This report provides an analysis of Illinois' innovative approach to producing and analyzing data on English language learners (ELLs). The federal Office of Education approved Illinois' plan under the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), including its approach to managing data, in August of 2017. Unlike other states, which combine current and former ELLs into one group, Illinois will keep the two groups separate and distinct and collect data on "former ELs" through grade 12. By way of contrast, other states with large ELL populations, such as California, New York, and Texas, amalgamate the two populations, taking advantage of ESSA regulations, which allow former ELLs to be combined with current ELLs for a period of four years after exit from the program. This approach can "mask" the performance of current ELLs, while failure to track former ELLs beyond four years can hide student academic achievement in later years.  The report goes on to commend Illinois state officials for recognizing that a "one-size-fits-all" approach has serious limitations. Although the state has adopted a rigorous, 5-year time frame for ELLs to achieve English language proficiency, Illinois plans to use a "growth to proficiency" model that uses a series of interim annual targets for each student to achieve based on initial entry level performance data.  The report concludes with some recommendations as to how data about ELL academic attainment can be reported and visualized, so as to provide both summative and granular data.

New Opportunities?  ESSA and Its Implications for Dual Language Learners and ECEC Workforce Development,
Migration Policy Institute, December, 2017, 16 pp.
Authors: Delia Pompa, Maki Park, & Michael Fix
The passage of the Every Student Succeeds Act in 2015, the successor legislation to the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, provides new opportunities to integrate early childhood education and care (ECEC) with K-12 education. This has special importance for dual language learners who now represent 32 percent of all children under the age of 5.  This report details all of the mechanisms available under the Act to strengthen ECEC for immigrant children. One of the most important tasks is to promote the professional development of immigrants and refugees in the ECEC field, who now constitute about 20 percent of total employment in the field, but who are largely employed in low-wage jobs in home or family care. The authors believe that “new and unprecedented levels of diversity among the U.S. young child population call for an ECEC workforce that is responsive to a wider range of linguistic, cultural, and educational needs.” The report makes five recommendations to achieve this goal, including integrated skill training and English as a Second Language education for ECEC workers. A program currently in place at Miami Dade College provides a model for such an approach.

Beyond Teaching English:  Supporting High School Completion by Immigrant and Refugee Students,
Migration Policy Institute, November, 2017, 36 pp.
Author:  Julie Sugarman
This report examines the ways in which selected school districts across the United States are providing services for immigrant and refugee students who are high school aged, particularly those entering school with limited formal education in their country of origin.  Based on research and feedback from schools participating in the Learning Network for Newcomer Youth Success, the author focuses on a few key points.  First, in order to address the variety of issues immigrant youth may bring with them (e.g., trauma, feelings of cultural dislocation, etc.) schools should provide wrap-around services that include mental health counseling and explicit support for adjusting to new academic and social expectations.  In several locations, this type of work is being done in collaboration with local community-based organizations.  Second, schools need to develop flexible and responsive educational structures that meet the needs of diverse students.  In some places, this includes programs specifically designed for students starting school over the age of 16.  The report highlights multiple models that are shaped by local demographics, geography and the amount of resources school districts possess.  Third, the author suggests that since many older students end up in the adult basic education system, high schools need to have a good sense of the larger ecosystem of educational options.  Finally, the author stresses that districts need to monitor their success in working with immigrant and refugee students and modify their programs accordingly.  She suggests that in some locations decision-making is driven by a desire to conform to ideological agendas rather than by data and rigorous analysis (Erik Jacobson, Montclair State University)

When More Means Less:  Mapping the Gaps between Expert and Public Understandings of Dual Language Learners,
FrameWorks Institute, 2017, 45 pp.
Authors: Marissa Fond et al
The FrameWorks Institute is a nonprofit think tank that advances the nonprofit sector's communication capacity by framing the public discourse about social problems. In an effort to develop "powerful strategies to change how people think about and understand language development," a group of three foundations (the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Heising-Simons Foundation, and the McKnight Foundation) commissioned the FrameWorks Institute to identify the key concepts to be communicated to the public, the nature of the resistance to those concepts, and strategies for overcoming that resistance. Through one-on-one interviews with experts in the field, the researchers identified the "big ideas" that need to be communicated to the general public, including the benefits of learning more than one language in early childhood, the facility with which children can learn two languages without suffering any kind of cognitive overload, and how school systems can effectively support dual language learners. These concepts often run up against deeply embedded cultural assumptions that challenge their validity. One such assumption is the "zero-sum game cultural model," which posits that a person's brain is like a container that has a limited amount of room for knowledge or skills.  Any gain in second language fluency is thought to come at the expense of English fluency.  This cultural model is often extended to the nation as a whole, rendering bilingualism suspect because it endangers the primacy of English as the nation's quasi-official language. Two other powerful cultural assumptions are that the family bears primary responsibility for the development of home language, not the school, and that second language ability is a nice "extra," but not something that should be a central feature of the school curriculum.  The report concludes with a list of six "key reframing tasks," including making it clear that the benefits of bilingualism accrue to society as a whole, not just to bilingual individuals.

Child Care Choices of Low-Income, Immigrant Families with Young Children: Findings from the National Survey of Early Care and Education,
Urban Institute, November 2017, 20 pp.
Author:  Heather Sandstrom & Julia Gelatt

Immigrants' use of early childhood care and education has been the topic of numerous studies, but what factors drive immigrant caregivers' use of these services? In this report, the authors use National Survey of Early Care and Education data to explore child-care decisions of immigrant and U.S.-born families. Noting that the most salient differences are not always between immigrant and non-immigrant parents, the authors emphasize the distinction between children of recent immigrants with low English proficiency (LEP) and children of U.S. born and English proficient immigrants.  Low-income immigrant parents most commonly use center-based care; however, low-income, LEP immigrant parents are less likely than U.S.-born and English-proficient immigrant parents to access child services and early education outside the home. This low-enrollment occurs despite the fact that LEP immigrant caregivers and U.S.-born and English-proficient caregivers have similar work patterns, seem to have the same expectations regarding child-care facilities, and LEP immigrant caregivers have a slightly higher perception of center-based care.  The authors postulate that LEP parents may be less likely to consider center-based care because of limited availability of nearby centers, and/or centers with staff members who speak their language.  Child-care decisions of immigrants who arrived before age 13 look most similar to child-care decisions of U.S.-born families, which suggests acculturation and integration. The authors recommend that further research focus on recent immigrants and LEP parents' low use of center-based care. (Sam Jones for The Immigrant Learning Center's Public Education Institute)

Diversifying the Classroom: Examining the Teacher Pipeline,
Urban Institute, October 5, 2017, 8 pp.
Author: Constance A. Lindsay et al
A look into any urban school classroom reveals how diverse student populations have become. The same, however, cannot be said for the teaching staff. Diversifying the Classroom: Examining the Teacher Pipeline seeks to understand the reasons for America's predominantly white workforce in education. Research shows that students of color perform better with a teacher of the same race or ethnicity; therefore, a diverse teacher workforce is crucial for improving student performance outcomes. Utilizing data from the American Community Survey and Center for Economic and Policy Research, the authors emphasize the diversity gap between teachers and their students. In 2015, while almost half of the students in the United States were not white, less than a quarter of teachers were people of color. The authors argue this lack of teacher diversity is the result of the lack of diverse college graduates. In 2015, only 21 percent of Black adults and 16 percent of Hispanic adults had a Bachelor's degree compared with 40 percent of White adults, and 65 percent of Asian adults. Traditionally, alternative pathways for obtaining teaching credentials were utilized by people of color to enter the teaching profession, but without a college degree, these pathways are not available.  Therefore, a crucial step toward a more diverse teaching force is getting people of color through college. Because teaching job markets, demographics and credentialing requirements are locally determined, the authors suggest that policy change to achieve greater teacher diversity must be tailored to local conditions. (Sakura Tomizawa for The Immigrant Learning Center's Public Education Institute)

Dual Language Learners: A National Demographic and Policy Profile,
Migration Policy Institute, October, 2017, 11 pp.
Authors: Maki Park et al
Defined as children ages 8 and under with at least one parent who speaks a language other than English at home, dual language learners (DLLs) now make up nearly one-third of all young children in the United States. This report provides a demographic overview of the DLL population and identifies policies and practices that have proven effective in educating these children. The authors point out the vulnerabilities of these children, e.g. the greater percentage of DLLs living in low-income families (58 percent compared to 43 percent of non-DLLs), lower enrollment of DLLs in pre-K programs (42 percent compared to 48 percent of non-DLLs), and substantially lower scores on standardized 4th grade reading and math assessments. Among the system-level policies that have shown promise in addressing these problems are: bilingual education; the use of Quality Rating and Improvement Systems to evaluate effectiveness in dealing with diversity; and the use of Kindergarten Entry or Readiness Assessments to measure cognitive development, not just English fluency. The authors also recommend the creative use of Child Care and Development Fund resources; the use of federal Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting funds to serve young DLLs and their families; and the tracking of DLL enrollment in Pre-K and Early Learning enrollment. "As the DLL population grows, early childhood policies that recognize and address DLLs' learning strengths and needs are crucial to ensuring that all young children are able to build a strong foundation for future success."

Facts about English Learners and the NCLB/ESSA Transition in Select States,
Migration Policy Institute, March 2017.
Authors: Julie Sugarman & Kevin Lee
Using U.S. Census Bureau and state administrative data, MPI has produced a set of state fact sheets looking at the demographics of the native-born and immigrant student populations in the U.S., including number of English Learners (ELs), their home languages, distribution by urban area, and educational outcomes as measured by standardized tests. There are 13 states covered in the fact sheets, including the 10 states with the largest EL enrollments. The Fact Sheets also provide a brief overview of the accountability mechanisms used by each state to assess EL student outcomes.  The Fact Sheets, along with a website on the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), enacted by Congress in December, 1915, are designed to help community organizations policymakers and others understand the new ESL policies incorporated into ESSA.

The Learner's Own Language
Explorations in English Language and Linguistics, 3:1 (2015), 7 pp.
Author: Philip Kerr
The learner's own language (often referred to as "L1") has been neglected as a resource in the learning of English, and in some contexts, has been banned altogether. The author of this paper finds scant support in the research literature for the exclusion of L1 in the classroom. He finds the four main arguments for the exclusion of L1, e.g. discouraging learners to think in English, to be flawed. Rather than debating whether use of L1 is a "good thing" or a "bad thing," it would be better to discuss "how" and "how often" L1 should be used. In this regard, he offers some practical suggestions for how teachers have effectively used L1 in helping students learn English.

Funding an Equitable Education for English Learners in the United States,
Migration Policy Institute, August, 2016, 50 pp.
Author: Julie Sugarman
English learners make up nearly 10 percent of the U.S. student population. Schools must spend more money to educate these students, and there is targeted funding from the federal, state, and local governments for programs to educate English learners. This paper explains the funding streams available to provide specialized educational services to these students. There are many variables that influence the amount of funding schools receive for teaching English learners-disparities in the wealth of school districts, methodologies in determining costs, political considerations based on available funding rather than on producing the best outcomes, the type of program used to teach English learners, the concentration of English learners in particular schools, the assignment of more experienced teachers within school districts, the characteristics of individual English learners (prior schooling, level of prior English proficiency, etc.), and many others. The author makes a set of recommendations to make the level of funding more appropriate to meet the needs of English learners. Her suggestions include: expanding research on the cost of educating English learners and the variables affecting those costs; additional research on the cost of educating English learners in schools where there is a low number of such students; additional research on effective monitoring and evaluation practices; more data collection at the state level; better training of all stakeholders involved in funding decisions at the local level; changes to funding formulas so that subpopulations of English learners are weighted differently based on need; reconsideration of arbitrary caps on the length of time schools may keep English learners in special programs; set aside funding for emergencies-such as an unexpected influx of English learners who may enter the school system after budget allocations for a particular year have been set. (Maurice Belanger, Maurice Belanger Associates)

Dual Language Learners in Head Start: The Promises and Pitfalls of New Reforms,
Migration Policy Institute, September 8, 2016, 8 pp.
Author: Keith McNamara
This article discusses the importance of Head Start in meeting the needs of immigrant children, particularly those who are dual language learners (DLLs). Originally launched as part of President Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty, the program has served more than 33 million children to date. Of the nearly one million children enrolled in Head Start in 2015, about one-third (320,000) speak a language other than English at home. According to the author, more than 86 percent of the 1,700 public, private, and nonprofit agencies providing Head Start services are grappling with the challenge of serving immigrant children. The author discusses the implication of recent policy changes designed to improve the quality of early childhood and Head Start programs. Although new regulations recognize bilingualism as a strength, require culturally and linguistically adapted screening and assessment tools, and urge programs to engage with families and communities, they fall short in defaulting to state and local Quality Rating and Improvement Systems, which by and large, fail to take into consideration the unique needs of DLLs. The author also notes the "dearth of research on DLL-specific best practices," including, for example, effective techniques for managing multilingual classrooms. "As DLLs are the fastest growing segment in preK programs, commensurate attention to their unique needs is imperative if educational services are to serve all children equitably."

Young Children of Refugees in the United States: Integration Successes and Challenges,
Migration Policy Institute, March, 2016, 40 pp.
Authors:  Kate Hopper, Jie Zing, Randy Capps, & Michael Fix
The authors of this study conclude that the 941,000 children ages 10 and younger with refugee parents living in the U.S. during the 2009-2013 period "fare better than children of other immigrants on almost all indicators" and also compare favorably with children with U.S. born parents on several indicators. The report begins by reviewing the U.S. refugee resettlement process and describing the socioeconomic and educational characteristics of arriving refugees, including English proficiency levels and exposure to refugee camps prior to resettlement. The authors then examine the risk and protective factors for refugee children. One major risk factor is the potentially harmful effects of linguistically isolated households, i.e. where no household member age 14 and older speaks English. Thirty-one (31) percent of refugee children live in such households, with substantial variations by nationality, e.g. 81 percent for Burmese and 45 percent for Iraqis. A key protective factor, according to the report, is the greater likelihood that refugee children will live in two-parent families (81 percent), compared to 62 percent of children of U.S. born parents. The authors then analyze a number of key variables, such as family poverty level; use of public benefits, such as the food stamp program, cash assistance, and SSI; health insurance coverage; and housing conditions. The authors speculate that one reason why refugee children "are, in the main, integrating successfully and achieving self-sufficiency" is refugee eligibility for resettlement services, which help to ease the adjustment to life in America. Funded by the Foundation for Child Development, this report was prepared for a research symposium on young children in refugee families held on February 25, 2015.

Providing a Head Start: Improving Access to Early Childhood Education for Refugees,
Migration Policy Institute, March, 2016
Authors: Lyn Morland, Nicole Ives, Clea McNeely, and Chenoa Allen
Access to quality early childhood education and care (ECEC) provides substantial short- and long-term benefits to refugee children, but children of refugees are less likely than children of U.S.-born parents to participate in ECEC programs. In searching for a solution to this problem , the authors of this study collected enrollment data and conducted interviews and focus groups from two sites where refugee resettlement and Head Start programs agreed to collaborate:  Syracuse in Onondaga County, NY, and Phoenix in Maricopa County, AZ. Enrollment of refugee children in Head Start programs increased faster in the two sites than the national rate of enrollment or the rate of refugee settlement in both counties, especially in Onondaga County where enrollment increased 500 percent despite declining refugee arrivals. Factors that facilitated the collaborative process included partners committing to shared goals, sharing resources and contact information and firmly understanding both refugee families' needs and the needs of Head Start teachers and staff. The report suggests that the collaborative approaches used by the Head Start program and resettlement agencies in the studied sites can inform initiatives at the federal, state and local levels to improve ECEC access for refugee and other immigrant populations. The report concludes with specific recommendations to promote such collaboration. (Sophia Mitrokostas for The Immigrant Learning Center Public Education Institute)


Fulfilling the Promise of Preschool in Silicon Valley:  Examining Participation Patterns and Barriers to Access among Low-Income Children and Low-Income Children of Immigrants,
Urban Institute, January, 2016, 13 pp.
Authors: Gina Adams et al
In Silicon Valley, California, fewer low-income children are enrolled in preschool than higher-income children. Among 3-year olds, for example, 26 percent of low-income children are enrolled, compared to 52 percent of higher-income children in this age cohort. As nearly three-quarters of low-income children have an immigrant parent, and three out of five have parents with limited English proficiency, the problem of low enrollment in Silicon Valley has important immigrant dimensions.  This report synthesizes two studies by The Urban Institute on the barriers to preschool participation among low-income and immigrant children in Silicon Valley. The first study uses American Community Survey data to reveal preschool enrollment patterns and the socio-economic characteristics of low-income immigrant families. The second study reviews existing research and uses interviews with experts to explore the hurdles to preschool participation faced by these families and to offer solutions. It finds that low-income children face learning challenges such as poverty, social isolation and insufficient home resources, and low-income children from immigrant families face additional challenges such as distrust of government institutions and cultural and linguistic barriers. To overcome these barriers, the authors recommend broadening preschool access for low-income immigrant children by expanding low-cost or free preschool services, improving outreach through multilingual information workshops for parents, tailoring enrollment requirements to linguistic needs, and enhancing the training of educators to reflect the diversity of immigrant families. (Sophia Mitrokostas for The ILC Public Education Institute)

Transatlantic Symposium Report: Improving Instruction for Immigrant and Refugee Students in Secondary Schools,
Migration Policy Institute, November, 2015, 9 pp.
Authors:  Margie McHugh & Julie Sugarman
Students with a migrant background often fall behind their nonimmigrant peers in academic achievement due to a lack of host-country language and literacy skills. This gap is especially large for language minority (LM) students who migrate during their secondary school years. Improving Instruction for Immigrant and Refugee Students in Secondary Schools summarizes the ideas and strategies discussed at a June 2015 Transatlantic Symposium of 30 policymakers, educators and researchers from the United States and Europe. The report explores how school environments can adapt to the growing enrollment of students without strong host-country language skills. Administrators must help educators acquire the skills necessary to support the language development of LM students and to understand their diverse cultural backgrounds. The report contains links to the papers and presentations prepared for the Symposium. The report also examines the role that state, national and supranational governments can play in developing, sustaining and scaling programs that respond to migrant students' unique needs. The report recommends the sharing of best practices among educators, legislators and administrators; the creation of policy priorities such as federal discretionary funding tied to state outcome targets to encourage high-quality instruction for LM and migrant students, and the monitoring of LM students' academic and language development. (Sophia Mitrokostas for The Immigrant Learning Center Public Education Institute)

Resource Guide: Supporting Undocumented Youth, A Guide for Success in Secondary and Postsecondary Settings
U.S. Department of Education, October 20, 2015, 63 pp.
Only 54 percent of undocumented youth have a high school diploma compared to 82 percent of their American-born counterparts. In the Department of Education's Resource Guide: Supporting Undocumented Youth, the agency outlines strategies that educators can utilize to address the educational challenges of undocumented students at the secondary and post-secondary level. The Guide also presents case studies showing how these strategies have been employed in real-life situations, and provides extensive information on national and state policies affecting the educational opportunities of undocumented youth, including charts detailing state "tuition equity" laws and public and private scholarships available to undocumented youth. Undocumented youth face many stressors such as fear of deportation and concerns about the availability of financial aid for college study. One strategy secondary-level educators can pursue to alleviate those stressors is to create a supportive environment that discourages stigmatization of undocumented students and raises awareness of their unique situation. The guide discusses the importance of providing undocumented youth with greater access to information about financial aid and immigration policies. In a Chicago case study, a training program was developed to educate counselors on Deferred Action for Childhood Arrival policies, Illinois tuition laws, and college saving and scholarship programs. (Maryam Bajoghli for The Immigrant Learning Center Public Education Institute)

The Educational, Psychological, and Social Impact of Discrimination on the Immigrant Child,
Migration Policy Institute (MPI), September, 2015, 23 pp.
Author: Christia Spears Brown
Prepared for a workshop on the impact of discrimination on immigrant children, held at MPI on November 20, 2014, this report surveys the landscape of available research on this topic.  The author defines discrimination as "harmful actions toward others because of their ethnicity, nationality, language ability and accent, or immigration status."  According to research, the majority of immigrant children have experienced some form of discrimination, coming from their peers, from school personnel, or through structural arrangements, such as inferior educational approaches or poorly resourced schools in immigrant neighborhoods. Such discrimination produces a host of negative outcomes for children, including  "lower self-esteem and life satisfaction; a greater likelihood of hopelessness, depression, and depressive symptoms; greater anxiety; and more delinquency and aggression."  Discrimination also takes a toll on the academic performance of children, leading to lower self-perception, reduced motivation, lower grades and test scores, and higher drop-out rates. The author, however, points out that there are a number of important "protective factors" that can help to mitigate the impact of discrimination, including a "strong, positive ethnic identity;" efforts by parents to prepare children to deal with discrimination ("ethnic socialization"); and the development of coping and social support skills.  The report concludes with recommendations for school personnel as to how they can reduce or eliminate the pernicious consequences of discrimination.

From Parent to Child?  Transmission of Educational Attainment Within Immigrant Families: Methodological Considerations,
Demography 52: (2015), 24 pp.
Authors: Renee Reichl Luthra & Thomas Soehl

Children of immigrants comprise more than 20 percent of the U.S. population under the age of 18. This study examines the extent to which the educational attainment of immigrant children mirrors that of their parents. The researchers find a "generally weak relationship between parental and child educational attainment within immigrant families." Using individual- and aggregate-level data from surveys of second-generation immigrants in Los Angeles, New York, San Diego and Miami, authors Luther and Soehl find that, for the majority of immigrant groups, children attain higher average education levels than their parents although this pattern varies by national origin. The researchers fault previous studies for overestimating the importance of parental education in immigrant families. They suggest that the common practice of "controlling" for family human capital using parental education is problematic when comparing immigrants from one country to those from another, and to the native population because both immigrants and natives are educated in fundamentally different education systems and, therefore, have educations that are not commensurate. In future analyses, the authors recommend against controlling for education in favor of controlling for the relative educational position of the immigrant in his or her home country. (Karly Foland for the Public Education Institute at The Immigrant Learning Center, Inc.)

Implications of Immigration Enforcement Activities for the Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families: A Review of the Literature,
Urban Institute (with the assistance of the Migration Policy Institute, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the University of Texas at Austin), September, 2015, 48 pp.
Authors:  Randy Capps et al

Funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, this study seeks to understand the impact of parental deportation on the children of undocumented immigrants.  From 2009 to 2013 - when deportation rates were especially high -- as many as half a million parents may have been deported affecting an equal number of U.S.-citizen children. As most of these deportations occurred through partnerships between ICE and local law enforcement authorities, many deported immigrants had prior criminal convictions and may have been already separated from their children through incarceration prior to deportation (Illegal entry and reentry at the southwest border made up 18 percent of convictions between 2003 and 2013). The researchers use a pyramid approach to assess the impact of deportations on children. At the base of the pyramid are the children of all immigrants, whether authorized or not.  Although most of these children may not be directly threatened by deportation, they may know of people in their extended families who are, and some children may not clearly understand the distinction between authorized and unauthorized immigrants. Further up the pyramid are the 5.3 million children with unauthorized parents who "live with the persistent threat of their parents' deportation alongside the economic and social instability that generally accompanies the unauthorized status of their family members." Near the top of the pyramid are the estimated 500,000 children who experienced the deportation of at least one parent from 2011 to 2013.  As 91 percent of those deported are men, two-parent families often become single-parent families. As fathers - especially in Hispanic families - are the primary breadwinners, deportations often lead to extended periods of family economic deprivation. At the pinnacle of the pyramid are those children who are permanently separated from their parents through loss of custody or contact. Based on a survey of child welfare agencies in seven states in 2011, an estimated 5,100 immigrant children nationwide with detained or deported parents were living in foster care. The report concludes with a list of 12 "unanswered questions and avenues for future research," including identifying promising practices for serving children in families affected by deportation. As most of the available studies date from a period when ICE was conducting widespread worksite raids (prior to 2009), there is a paucity of research on the later period when deportations became more geographically dispersed. In order to fill the gap, a companion Urban Institute study looks at the nature and impact of deportations in selected communities in five states:  California, Florida, Illinois, South Carolina, and Texas). An article in The Atlantic summarizes the findings from this study.

Migrant Education and Community Inclusion: Examples of Good Practice
Migration Policy Institute Europe, SIRIUS Network Policy Brief Series, February, 2015, 9 pp.
Author Rafael Berger Sacramento

Migration patterns have long shaped and redefined the European continent, but member states of the European Union differ in how they have integrated the newest stream of migrants into their societies, particularly in the field of education. Rafael Berger Sacramento's policy brief Migrant Education and Community Inclusion: Examples of Good Practice "reviews current measures to promote the integration of migrant students around Europe, specifically those policies and government-backed projects that include the family and community as an integral part of the educational process." The author identifies four key strategies that seem to be producing positive results:  first, bringing parents and communities into schools; second, bringing formal education into migrant homes; third, promoting diversity and awareness among school staff; and fourth, helping students form balanced multicultural identities.  The authors also provide brief descriptions of seven model programs exemplifying these strategies, such as the Pupil Guidance Centers in Belgium, the Home Interaction Program for Parents and Youngsters (HIPPY) in Germany and the Netherlands, and the Flex-ID program in Norway.(Ariella Katz-Suchov for The ILC Public Education Institute)

Intersecting Inequalities: Research to Reduce Inequality for Immigrant Origin Children and Youth,
William T. Grant Foundation, February 2015, 23 pp.
Authors: Carola Suarez-Orozco, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, & Vivian Tseng
This paper summarizes what current research suggests are the six major risk factors confronting immigrant-origin youth: low levels of parental education and employment, poverty, recent arrival in the U.S. (within 10 years), language barriers, racialization as a "visible minority," and undocumented status of self and/or parent. When these factors "intersect," they are predictive of poor educational, health, social, and economic outcomes for children. The authors also explore key contexts for the alleviation of these inequalities, focusing on school and family environments as places where positive change can be achieved. With regard to schools, the authors looks at evidence-based practices in six key areas:  English language instruction, assessment procedures, supports for immigrant students during the "critical transition phase," state and federal educational policies, and improving college pathways and persistence. To reduce disparities in the family environment, the authors stress the importance of access to antipoverty programs, educational programs to boost the human capital of parents, and programs to regularize the status of the undocumented population. The article closes by lamenting the paucity of research on immigrants as the primary target of investigation and suggests various approaches to fill this gap.


Factbook 2015: The Condition of Latinos in Education
Excelencia in Education, January, 2015, 29 pp.
Compiled by:  Deborah A. Santiago, Emily Calderon Galdeano, & Morgan Taylor
The Latino population is one of the fastest growing demographics in the U.S., rising from 13 percent to 17 percent in the last decade and currently projected to reach 31 percent by 2060. This report from Excelencia in Education, a network of colleges and universities working to increase Latino student success, provides a snapshot of Latino educational achievement. Covering early education through graduate studies and workforce education, the data show that although Latino students have achieved academic progress over the last decade, they still face particular hardships as students and workers. For instance, high school dropout rates in Latino populations have decreased by nearly half but remain higher than any other demographic. Conversely, Latino high school graduates now have the highest rate of college enrollment (70 percent compared with 66 percent White and 56 percent African American students) yet Latinos are “significantly overrepresented in lower-paying service occupations” and underrepresented in graduate education. Guided by the belief that education is the best pathway to maximizing human capital, the publishers of this report hope to improve educational policies and practices for Latino students by presenting the most current research. (Jamie Cross for The ILC Public Education Institute  

From Cradle to Career: The Multiple Challenges Facing Immigrant Families in Langley Park Promise Neighborhood,
Urban Institute, Casa de Maryland, & Prince George's County Public Schools, June 23, 2014, 84 pp.
Authors: Molly M. Scott, Graham MacDonald, Juan Collazos, Ben Levinger, Eliza Leighton, Jamila Ball

The recipient of a 2012 planning grant from the Federal Department of Education for a Promise Neighborhood initiative, Langley Park, Maryland, is a working class, heavily immigrant (predominantly Central American) community in the suburbs of Washington, D.C.  Its 17,000 residents  (including  3,700 children) face a multitude of problems,  including low educational attainment for adults (nearly 60 percent have less than a high school education) and a median family income less than a third of the median for all Maryland families with children.  Its children lag behind other children on most standard performance measures, e.g. 37 percent of Langley Park 16 to 19 year olds are working and not in school, a rate more than 4 times the national average. With the participation of local public school systems and many community groups, Casa de Maryland is seeking to serve as anchor organization for a multi-pronged initiative to address the barriers that immigrant children face in successfully completing six crucial childhood transitions. The organization hopes that this initiative will place Langley Park children on the path to academic and career success and serve as a model for the nation.  This report provides a detailed analysis of community needs and resources and puts forth a theory of change to govern the operation of a Promise Neighborhood Initiative.

Immigrant Parents and Early Childhood Programs: Addressing Barriers of Literacy, Culture, and Systems Knowledge,
Migration Policy Institute, June, 2014, 57 pp.
Authors: Maki Park & Margie McHugh
With more than 25 percent of children ages 8 and above having an immigrant parent, this report addresses the "urgent need to address barriers facing low-literate and limited English proficient (LEP) parents of young children." Forty-seven (47) percent of these parents are LEP and 45 percent are low income.  Moreover, immigrant parents are more than twice as likely to be low-educated, i.e. lacking a high school diploma or its equivalent. Based on field research in six states, a series of focus groups, and demographic analysis, the report stresses the connection between effective parent engagement and the academic success of children from immigrant backgrounds.  The report details the various forms of parental engagement strategies that have proven effective in the past, including literacy and English language programs for parents. The authors recommend the creation of a "large-scale pilot program" jointly sponsored by HHS and the U.S. Department of Education to address the educational needs of these parents. They also urge efforts to improve accountability for how Title 1 family engagement funds are utilized.   In addition, they recommend the collection of data on parents' levels of education and language proficiency prior to kindergarten entry so that policymakers can design appropriate interventions. As the U.S. has entered an "era of early childhood system-building" at a time when immigration levels are at historic highs, the report concludes that the early childhood field should be "on the front line" of efforts to promote the integration of immigrants in the U.S. 

Supporting Immigrant Families' Access to Prekindergarten,
Urban Institute, March 19, 2014, 34 pp.
Authors: Julia Gelatt, Gina Adams, & Sandra Huerta
Funded by a grant from the Annie E. Casey Foundation, this report discusses the reasons why immigrant children are underrepresented in prekindergarten programs and identifies strategies to increase their enrollment. The report is based on more than 40 interviews with specialists in this area. Promising strategies fall into four broad categories: outreach, enrollment assistance, building relationships with parents, and building immigrant-friendly prekindergarten programs. Although many of these strategies have been identified in the past, the authors felt a need to highlight them again, especially for the benefit of school districts experiencing inflows of immigrants for the first time. The appendix includes more detailed information about five model public education programs of special meritd:  Portland (Maine), Tulsa (Oklahoma), Montgomery County (Maryland),  the Early Childhood Education Grant Program (Nebraska), and the Early Childhood Education and Assistance Program (Washington).

To dream or not to dream: The effects of immigration status, discrimination, and parental influence on Latino children's access to education
Migration Studies, 2014, 23 pp.
Author: Elzbieta M. Gozdziak
Through the use of case studies and interviews, this article seeks to understand how undocumented status impacts the educational performance and social experience of children. The author examines both unauthorized immigrant children and U.S.-born children with an unauthorized parent(s).  While undocumented children have the right to a K-12 education, they often lack the necessary resources and support to achieve scholastic success.  Moreover,  the need to support the family, combined with family and cultural pressures  to leave school, lead to spotty attendance, high dropout rates, and low post-secondary completion. While middle-class migrant parents tend to be supportive of their children's educational advancement, working class parents often are not. Furthermore, undocumented children face ethnic stereotyping by peers (in-group and out-group), teachers, and administrators; resentment and discriminatory behaviors create a culture of exclusion and unequal opportunity. Meanwhile, difficulties being undocumented grow noticeably with age through the avoidance of authorities, social isolation, and restrictions on travel. Consequently, fear of deportation can lead to lack of participation in extracurricular activities, which impacts post-secondary prospects. Other barriers to college include: difficulties in accessing financial aid, parental opposition to higher education, and misconceptions regarding college eligibility. The author emphasizes that DACA and DREAM Act legislation are not panaceas.  Our stereotype of the striving, college-bound DREAM Act beneficiary does not accord with the reality of most of these children. Lastly, the author suggests that creative efforts to educate parents through literacy and vocational training would help families realize the relationship between higher education and upward mobility for their children. (Colin Liebtag)

Education Reform in a Changing Georgia: Promoting High School and College Success for Immigrant Youth,
Migration Policy Institute (MPI), March 2014, 80 pp.
Authors: Sarah Hooker, Michael Fix, and Margie McHugh
Funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, this report is the second in a series of MPI reports examining the education and workforce experience of immigrant youth in five states. "Immigrant youth" are defined as first- and second-generation young people between the ages of 16 and 26. The report examines their progress within the K-12, adult education, and postsecondary education systems.  Despite the rapid rate of growth of Georgia's immigrant population (Georgia ranked 8 in the size of its immigrant population in 2012, up from 16th place in 1990), the state has placed a number of obstacles in the path of its immigrants, including barring undocumented immigrants from adult education classes and requiring them to pay out-of-state tuition at public colleges. These policies have been particularly burdensome for youth who would otherwise be eligible for DACA but lack a high school diploma or its equivalency (enrollment in adult education would enable them to apply for DACA).  Despite these policies, some educational institutions have shown a degree of success in addressing the needs of these young people. The Gwinnett County School System, for example, which has the highest immigrant enrollment in the state, has made extensive use of summer school to help increase graduation rates for English language learners (ELLs); and community colleges, such as Georgia Perimeter and Georgia Gwinnett, have developed mentoring programs targeting Latino students.  The report concludes with a set of recommendations specific to the three educational systems analyzed in the report. For K-12 educators, for example, the report urges greater participation by ELLs in content courses; for adult educators, concerted efforts to provide pathways for ELLS into postsecondary and certificate programs; and for postsecondary educators, giving participants in the English for Academic Purposes (EAP) program more opportunities to take mainstream college courses. These and other recommendations in the report were based on data analysis and interviews with approximately 50 education administrators, state agency officials, and community leaders.

Embracing Linguistic Diversity: The Role of Teacher Leaders in Building Seattle's Pipeline of International Schools,
Alliance for Excellent Education, October, 2013, 18 pp.
Author: Mariana Haynes
This report discusses why and how the U.S. education system needs to change in order to accommodate the increasing number of linguistically diverse students in America. Using Seattle's growing network of international schools as a model, author Mariana Haynes discusses effective ways to address the cultural and language diversity of students in a manner that benefits both the students and American society as a whole.  According to the report, "It is estimated that by 2030 half of all public school students will have non-English speaking backgrounds." Mainstream programs for English Language Learners (ELLs) provide students with a "below-standard curriculum," viewing language diversity as a deficit to overcome, rather than an asset. By way of contrast, schools embracing "cultural and linguistic diversity are producing far better outcomes than traditional schools, which have historically undeserved students from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds." Ten years after the first international elementary school opened in Seattle, "fourth- and fifth-grade proficiency rates increased by more than 30 percentage points...significantly outperforming district and state averages." The purpose of the innovative design of Seattle's international and immersion schools, Hayes points out, is not to academically outperform traditional schools but rather to effectively prepare students to meet the demands of the global economy and to produce "employees with knowledge of foreign languages and cultures to work effectively with employees and partners in other countries." The author's concluding remarks offer policy recommendations for developing effective school designs that "focus on developing students' twenty-first century knowledge, skills, and dispositions."  (Jade Flora-Holmquist)

Early Education for Dual Language Learners: Promoting School Readiness and Early School Success,
Migration Policy Institute (MPI), November , 2013, 28 pp.
Author: Linda M. Espinosa
This paper reviews the literature on early childhood education (ECE) for dual language learners (DLLs) in an effort to identify educational practices that have proven effective in helping children succeed in school.  A retired Professor of Early Childhood Education at the University of Missouri (Columbia), the author prepared this paper for a public symposium on ECE convened by MPI in January 2013. As defined by the Office of Head Start, "Dual language learners are children learning two or more languages at the same time..."  According to Espinosa, this term, rather than such terms as "English Language Learners (ELLS)," avoids the erroneous assumption that young children (from birth to age 5)  have already acquired fluency in home language.  She begins by noting that achievement patterns for immigrant children vary by ethnicity and socioeconomic status.  However, even "after controlling for country of origin, family income, and education, young DLLS in immigrant families showed more positive cognitive outcomes when some amount of the heritage language was being used in the home."  Although ECE cannot compensate for all disadvantages experienced by poor immigrant children, "most scholars do agree that high-quality early learning opportunities will positively affect the school readiness of young DLLs."  An important strategy is to boost ECE participation rates among DLLs, which tend to lag behind those of monolingual children.  However, once DLLs participate in ECE, research suggests that the use of home language "leads to improvement in first language skills and at least equivalent English language skills in comparison to children in all-English contexts." Given the diversity of languages and cultures represented in the immigrant population, few teachers will have the ability to offer instruction in home language.  However, the author reviews a number of techniques that can be used by the monolingual teacher, some dependent on the participation of parents and volunteers, to support continued development of home languages.

When White Is Just Alright: How Immigrants Redefine Achievement and Reconfigure the Ethnoracial Hierarchy,
American Sociological Review (2013), 78: 849, 22 pp.

Authors: Tomás R. Jiménez & Adam L. Horowitz
Cupertino is an affluent and heavily Asian community in California's Silicon Valley.  The authors of this study examined racial dynamics within the Cupertino school system and discovered that the traditional link between white ethnoracial identity and academic achievement has been "turned on its head.  Asianness is intimately associated with high achievement, hard work, and academic success. Whiteness, in contrast, stands for lower achievement, laziness, and academic mediocrity." According to the authors, the heavy presence of an immigrant-origin population has the potential to alter the normative, third-generation educational standards in a community-benchmarks historically seen as set by its white members. The study draws on in-depth interviews with 61 third-plus-generation individuals and another 10 key informants. Fifty-one of the 61 individuals were upper-middle class whites of European ancestry. The authors explore the many ramifications of this shift in the hierarchical ordering of race, including the impact of negative stereotyping on the academic performance of white students and the flight of white students into less academically rigorous private schools.  Although "the U.S. ethnoracial system is still defined by white privilege," the authors contend that "the challenge to whiteness that high-skilled immigration poses is significant."

English Language Learners: Shifting to an Asset-Based Paradigm,
Annenberg Institute for School Reform (Brown University),
Special Issue of Voices in Urban Education (VUE), Summer, 2013, 56 pp.

The articles in this special issue of VUE examine different aspects of asset-based education for English language learners (ELLS).  In the lead article, Rosann Tung, Director of Research and Policy at the Annenberg institute for School Reform, laments that "most states and districts lack a vision for ELL education that builds on families' cultural and linguistic assets."  She places part of the blame on national leaders who promote testing in English and the Common Core Standards as educational panaceas without taking account of the rich and growing diversity of the student population in the U.S. Compounding the problem is the fact that most higher education institutions have not modified their pre-service teacher education programs to give all teachers, not just ESL teachers, an understanding of language learning and linguistic developmental milestones.  Rather than casting ELL education as a "problem, dilemma, achievement gap, or crisis," the contributors to this special issue "shift the paradigm, reminding and urging us to embrace ELLs as the very community members who, when well educated, will be the bicultural, bilingual leaders who improve our city neighborhoods and help us participate effectively in the global economy."   Among the schools and programs held up as models in the issue are: the International Charter School in Pawtucket, Rhode Island;  the Margarita Muniz Academy in Boston; the Internationals Network for Public Schools in New York City; the schools in Clark County, Nevada; and the family support programs of the Chinatown Neighborhood Center in Boston.  A concluding article examines state investments in ELL education in high-ELL-growth states and finds major shortcomings; we have produced "a system adept at labeling failure but incapable of doing anything about it."
Preparing the Children of Immigrants for Early Academic Success
Migration Policy Institute, July, 2013, 18 pp.
Author: Robert Crosnoe

This report begins with a discussion of the  "immigrant paradox in education,"  a phenomenon observed by some researchers in which immigrant children "tend to do better academically and behaviorally than their families socioeconomic circumstances suggest they will."  Much of this research, the author notes, is based on studies of high school students. Newly available data sets, however, permit an analysis of younger children and reveal a more nuanced picture, where, for example, young children of foreign-born Blacks scored higher on achievement tests than the children of U.S.-born Blacks (confirming the Immigrant paradox), but the children of foreign-born Latino families, and especially Mexican families, scored lower that the children of U.S.-born Latinos. "The bottom line," according to the author, " that the immigrant paradox pattern that is so strong in secondary school is weaker in elementary school, in particular during the years surrounding the transition into formal schooling." The rest of the paper examines three "high impact" policy interventions that are likely to minimize the risks faced by immigrant children. These are: expanded access to early education, promotion of better child health and efforts to establish and maintain family-school partnerships.  As children of immigrants are less likely to be enrolled in pre-school programs than native-born children, less likely to have health insurance, and less likely to have engaged parents, these three interventions will "possibly reduce disparities between the educational outcomes of the children of immigrants and their US-born counterparts." (Denzil Mohammed)

Diverse Children: Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration in America's New Non-Majority Generation,
Foundation for Child Development, July, 2013, 35 pp.
Authors: Donald J. Hernandez & Jeffrey S. Napierala 

This report uses 19 indicators to compare the children of immigrants with the children of native-born parents across four racial/ethnic groups: Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White. Although the children of immigrants start life with certain advantages, e.g. greater likelihood of living in a two-parent family with at least one securely employed person, they also face serious risks to their academic and life success, such as low median family income  ($33,396 for Hispanic children with immigrant parents), lack of health insurance (19 percent of Hispanic children with immigrant parents compared to 7 percent of White and Asian children with U.S.-born parents), and low rates of Pre-K enrollment (only 37 percent of Hispanic children as compared to 50-55 percent for other groups).  After examining all 19 indicators, the report finds that the two groups at highest risk are Black children with U.S.-born parents, and Hispanic children with immigrant parents. The authors recommend greater investment in early education programs for all students; adequate funding and resources to meet the needs of dual language learners; ensuring that all children are covered by health insurance, particularly the citizen children of undocumented immigrants; and strengthening safety net programs, such as SNAP and the Child Tax Credit, to meet the needs of immigrant families experiencing economic insecurity.

Preparing Young Hispanic Dual Language Learners for a Knowledge Economy,
National Institute for Early Education Research, Rutgers University, January, 2013, 16 pp.
Authors: Alexandra Figueras-Daniel & W. Steven Barnett
This policy brief reviews research on the participation of Hispanic dual language learners in preschool programs. Although the school achievement of Hispanic children, in particular children with limited English proficiency,  lags behind other groups, Hispanic children are less likely than any other ethnic group to enroll in preschool programs. According to the authors, this low rate is primarily a function of limited access, rather than any reluctance of the part of Hispanic parents to enroll their children in such programs. New Jersey's successful track record in enrolling Hispanic children in its so-called "Abbott districts" supports this conclusion. The authors stress the importance of English language proficiency by kindergarten as an important predictor of school success. However, "there is a consensus in the research community that development and maintenance of the first language can be supported without interfering with English language and literacy skill acquisition." Indeed, some research suggests that "additive language programs" produce better student performance than English-only approaches. The authors also point to the need to educate Hispanic parents about the value of stimulating the cognitive and social development of their children even before preschool. Finally, the authors argue that teacher preparation and professional development are "critical components" in developing high-quality programs. One study found that fewer than 15 percent of teacher education programs at the nation's colleges and universities require students to take a course devoted specifically to working with dual language learners. The brief concludes with a list of "best practices" for working with young dual language learners.

Unlocking the Research on English Learners:  What We Know - and Don't Yet Know - about Effective Instruction,
American Educator, Summer, 2013, 9 pp.
Author: Claude Goldenberg
Despite a recent surge in the number of professional publications devoted to the topic of English learners (ELs), Claude Goldenberg, a professor of education at Stanford University, concludes that there is "surprisingly little research" on effective instructional practices with ELs. Notwithstanding the dearth of research, he posits three general principles that seem to be supported by the literature:  first, generally effective instructional practices are likely to be effective with ELs; Second, ELs require additional instructional supports; and third, the home language can be a powerful tool to promote academic development. The author elaborates on each of these principles. With regard to the first principle, he cites examples from various studies of how generally effective teaching practices, such as structured writing, Success for All, and Direct Instruction, have also proven effective with ELs; however, he points out that while such practices are necessary, they are not sufficient for success. With the advent of the common core, various supports and modifications sometimes referred to as "sheltered instruction," will be essential; however, "there is not much evidence that these strategies actually help English learners overcome the challenges they face in learning advanced academic content and skills..." Finally, Goldenberg addresses the controversial topic of the role of home language in instructing ELs, finding that "numerous experimental studies have been conducted over the past 40 years, and the consensus - although it is by no means unanimous - is that learning to read in their home language helps ELs boost reading skills in English." The author stresses, however, that primary language instruction leading to bilingualism "should be seen as a value in and of itself," because it brings intellectual, cultural, and economic benefits to the nation.

Educating K-12 English Language Learners with Disabilities,
Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota (Feature Issue of Impact), Winter/Spring, 2013, 36 pp.
This collection of 18 articles reviews the theory and practice of serving an estimated 500,000 limited English proficient students with disabilities in U.S. schools. Among the topics covered in the issue are: a profile of English language learners with disabilities, the present and future of bilingual ESL special education, the legal obligations of the education system to serve English learners with disabilities; the Common Core Standards and their impact on this population; utilizing differentiated instruction for English language learners with disabilities; staff development initiatives;  how to include English language learners in Response to Intervention (RTI) systems; the role of interpreters and speech-language pathologists; and the experience of the National Council of La Raza's network of 115 charter schools in serving ELLs with disabilities. Cross-cutting themes in the articles are the need to distinguish between language-related needs and disability-related needs and the importance of fostering collaboration between special education and language teachers to address the complex needs of this population.

Shaping our Futures: The Educational and Career Success of Washington State's Immigrant Youth,
Migration Policy Institute, June, 2013, 97 pp.
Authors: Sarah Hooker, Margie McHugh, Michael Fix, Randy Capps
Produced under a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, this is the first in a series of five state-level reports examining the progress of immigrant students in the K-12, post-secondary, and workforce training systems. The overarching goal of the project is to identify promising educational strategies and unmet needs using a comparative approach.  The particular focus of the project is immigrant youth (defined as immigrants or the children of immigrants) between the ages of 16 to 26, who constitute approximately 26 percent of all youth in Washington State. Special attention is given to certain sub-groups of this population: refugees, children of migrant workers, late-arriving immigrant children, students with interrupted formal education (SIFE), and long-term ELLs -- defined as students who have been in U.S. schools for six years or more but remain classified. The researchers selected two areas of the state with high concentrations of immigrants for in-depth study: the King County area (including Seattle) and the Yakima Valley in Central Washington,  and conducted approximately 60 in-person or telephone interviews with key informants. Among practices found to be effective within K-12 settings are extended school days for English language learners (ELLs) and granting academic credit for first language skills. The report also provides detailed information about several of the state's most innovative educational initiatives benefitting out-of-school immigrant youth, including the I-BEST program, which integrates ESL or ABE classes with professional or technical college-level classes; the "On-Ramp to I-BEST," which provides a similar  integrated approach to lower-level learners; and the Integrated Digital English Acceleration (I-DEA) initiative, which seeks to utilize on-line learning to reduce the amount of class time spent in learning English and acquiring college-level credits and credentials. The report concludes with a series of recommendations, including improvements in teacher training, scaling up programs that provide additional learning time for ELLs, more sophisticated and uniform data collection on ELLs and immigrant youth, accelerated approaches to remediation on the community college level, and a sustainable funding model for adult education.

Implementing the Common Core State Standards for English Learners: The changing Role of the ESL Teacher
TESOL International Association, April 2013, 8 pp.
Author: Diane Staer Fenner
In February of 2013, TESOL International Association convened a meeting of experts "to start a conversation on how the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) will change the roles of those who teach English as a second language (ESL)." This meeting report notes that "ESL teachers have been largely absent from the conversation around this important educational reform, yet they will play a critical role in its successful implementation..."  One problem is that ESL teachers are often lower in status than content-area teachers, in part because ESL is not recognized as a core academic content area under the NCLB law. Another is the lack of uniform standards and consistency in ESL teacher credentialing requirements around the country. Meeting participants argued that the role of the ESL teacher must evolve to become "experts, consultants, and trainers well versed in teaching rigorous academic content ..." ESL teachers can help content teachers use language and culture more effectively during CCSS-based instruction. They should attend content-area department meetings to bring their special perspective to bear on school reform efforts. Stakeholders at the meeting also recommended new approaches to professional development that will expose content-area teachers to the techniques of teaching English language learners and to ways of collaborating with ESL teachers.

Unauthorized Immigrant Parents and Their Children's Development: A Summary of the Evidence,
Migration Policy Institute, March, 2013, 23 pp.
Authors:  Hirokazu Yoshikawa & Jenya Kholoptseva
One of a series of papers prepared for a January 2013 symposium on the cognitive, physical, and emotional development of immigrant children, this paper reviews research findings on the impact of the unauthorized status of parents on their children's life prospects. Although research on this subject is limited, available studies suggest that unauthorized status is associated with lower cognitive skills in early childhood, higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms during adolescence, and fewer years of schooling. As children of unauthorized parents make up nearly one-third of all children with immigrant parents and 8 percent of all US children, the fate of these children, according to the authors, should be taken into consideration when policy makers discuss immigration reform. The authors review six "mechanisms of influence" that impede the development of these children:  deportation of parents,  parent-child separation during travel, lower access to means-tested programs, poor working conditions for parents, psychological distress and economic hardship, and for the 1 million children who are themselves unauthorized, awareness of one's own unauthorized status and its consequences. The report concludes with a series of policy recommendations to address the plight of these children, including steps to modify unauthorized status,  exercising discretion in deportation cases involving children,  utilizing trusted NGOs in enrolling children in means-tested programs, promoting enrollment in  center-based care, and improved working conditions that would likely result from comprehensive immigration reform.

English Language Learners in America's Great City Schools: Demographics, Achievement, and Staffing,
Council of the Great City Schools, 2013,  112 pp.

This report, produced by an organization representing 67 urban school districts, provides a snapshot of English language learners (ELLs) and programs to serve them. Described as "one of the most comprehensive data-collection efforts on English Language Learners ever attempted," the report is based on an extensive survey conducted in 2012.  The report provides ELL enrollment data for all districts, including ELL enrollment as a percentage of total district enrollment, ELL enrollments by grade level, number of ELLs who are refugees, languages spoken by ELLs, number of ELLs receiving special educational services, and achievement data for ELLs. The report also discusses variations in the definitions of ELLs, procedures used to identify ELLs, parental opt-in or opt-out policies, and hiring and professional development requirements for ELL teachers.

Educating English Language Learners: Grantmaking Strategies for Closing America's
Other Achievement Gap
Grantmakers for Education, April 2013, 30 pp.
Drawing on an online survey of 138 grantmaking organizations and in-depth  interviews with 24 survey respondents, this report takes the pulse of foundation grantmaking in support of English language learners, who now constitute 10.7 percent of the K-12 student population. Many are struggling academically and have poor educational outcomes. Although a growing number of funders are targeting resources to this population, the overall percentage of grants in this area remains small, i.e. less than 1 percent of education grants listed in the Foundation Center database. Most foundations make these grants through larger education portfolios; only two foundations have a stand-alone English language learner portfolio. Indeed, the majority of  "ELL grants" are not exclusively targeting English learners or their needs, but rather "embedded in more generic strategies to close the achievement gap or improve educational outcomes for low income, under-served or minority students." The authors suggest that such an approach may fail to address the unique needs of English learners. The report summarizes "lessons for philanthropy" from the growing body of research and experience in this field and concludes with four case studies of successful grantmaking specifically targeting English language learners.

The English Learner Dropout Dilemma:  Multiple Risks and Multiple Resources,
University of California Santa Barbara, Gevritz Graduate School of Education, February, 2013, 60 pp.
Author: Rebecca M. Callahan
In the 2008-09 school year, nearly 11 percent of U.S. students in grades K-12 were classified as English learners (EL), and many more were former EL students, no longer counted in school statistics. This report examines the extent, consequences, causes, and solutions to the dropout crisis among EL students and the extent to which EL dropouts mirror or deviate from the profile of the broader dropout population. Research repeatedly shows that EL students are about twice as likely to drop out as native and fluent English speakers. While many of the social and economic factors that produce dropouts in the general population apply to EL students, others are unique, such as tracking as a result of EL status; limited access to EL-trained or certified teachers, especially in academic subjects; and a high stakes accountability system. In terms of solutions to the EL dropout dilemma, the report proposes three main reforms: stronger academic exposure within EL classes, use of the primary language in instruction, and a shift from a deficit to an additive perspective. The use of the term "emergent bilingual" has been suggested as a way of capturing this new perspective.

Multilingualism and Multiculturalism: Transatlantic Discourses on Language, Identity, and Immigrant Schooling,
Notre Dame Law Review,
November, 2012, 31 pp.
Author: Rosemary C. Salomone
This paper argues for a fundamental change in how policy makers and educators on both sides of the Atlantic view the role of home languages in the educational process.  In the face of mounting evidence that dual language competence promotes greater educational gains among children, enhances self-esteem, strengthens family and community, and gives the nation a competitive advantage in the global market for goods and services, the author laments the fact that the predominant view of immigrant education is that it should be "subtractive," rather than "additive," i.e. reducing use of heritage languages while increasing use of English (or other national or sanctioned languages in Europe), rather than building competence in both.  She reviews the forces that sustain this view. In the United States, she points to anti-immigrant sentiment, particularly directed at Spanish-speaking immigrants from Mexico;  a deep-seated discomfort with any kind of "difference" that goes beyond the prevailing "multiculturalism lite" ideology; concerns over persistent Latino-white achievement gap; and an emphasis on "basics" and testing that tends to curtail innovation in education. In Europe, on the other hand, multilingualism is at the heart of the European project, so while the ideology is supportive  of "plurilingualism,"  only languages indigenous to Europe are given tolerance and support; immigrant languages, such as Arabic and Turkish, are generally ignored, to the detriment of immigrants and their children and to Europe as a whole.  As there are a multitude of factors, including the child's age of arrival, the number of children from the same linguistic background within a particular school system, and the number of native-born families interested in learning a heritage language, the author acknowledges that a "one-size-fits-all" approach is not desirable. However, "the importance of the home language in promoting emotional well-being, cognitive development, and  social integration....(means that) it is now time for government officials and educators on both sides of the Atlantic to consider policies and practices that definitively respect the language of linguistic minority students, while finding common ground between the home and mainstream culture."

The Role of Language and Literacy in College- and Career-Ready Standards: Rethinking Policy and Practice in Support of English Language Learners,
Alliance for Excellent Education,
October, 2012, 19 pp.
Author:  Mariana Haynes
This paper argues for a shift in how policymakers, administrators, curriculum developers, teacher educators, and assessment specialists approach language, skill and content area instruction for English Language Learners (ELLs).  Defined as students who are in the process of acquiring English language proficiency, the ELL population is rapidly expanding and facing growing pressure to succeed academically while learning English. The new Common Core State Standards, currently being implemented by 46 states, as well as the Next Generation Science Standards, being developed in 26 states, have implications for ELLs because they require students to acquire competencies simultaneously in English language and other areas, such as mastery of academic content, creative and critical thinking, collaboration, communication, and self-reflection.  Traditional approaches to ELL education on the secondary level often stressed "content-free" language proficiency with little opportunity to hear and learn language from other students and teachers within subject-area classrooms. The paper details the "key strategies for language and content learning" and urges the creation of "powerful learning environments" to provide ELLs "with rich, authentic tasks that bridge content-area learning with language and literacy development."  The report concludes with a series of recommendations for state education departments, covering the alignment of English Language proficiency and common core standards, as well as a broader professional development effort recognizing that ELL education is a "shared responsibility among teachers in all disciplines." (Jessica Spooner)

Comparative Perspectives on International Migration and Child Wellbeing (Summary of Articles),
The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (Issue Introduction), September, 2012, 15 pp.
This issue seeks to address a serious gap in the research literature on migration, i.e. "whether and how migration improves or diminishes the life opportunities of children and youth." According to the editors -- Alícia Adserà and Marta Tienda of Princeton University -- unless migrant youth are engaged in the labor market, they tend to be ignored in international reports about migration and development. Moreover, "few studies portray the selection process that determines whether or not children migrate with their parents, follow them later, or remain behind and wait for their return." Although the second generation, or children born in countries of settlement, has received considerable scholarly attention, the first generation has been largely ignored. The studies in this volume, therefore, enable policy makers "to identify preventable circumstances that can thwart successful integration of migrant children." Among the key findings, drawn from research on migrant children in the U.S., Italy, Spain, and the U.K, are that "the scholastic achievement gaps are wider for migrant youth who arrive at later ages" but that compulsory Pre-K schooling decreases disparities for these young people.  The articles in this issue are only available through subscription, but the summary may be downloaded using the above link.

 Patterns and Predictors of School Readiness and Early Childhood Success Among Young Children in Black Immigrant Families,
Migration Policy Institute, October, 2012, 35 pp.
This paper seeks to fill a research void on the health and development of Black immigrant children, who constitute 12 percent of all Black children in the United States. The University of North Carolina researchers draw their data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, which tracks a representative sample of over 10,000 children born in 2001. The paper suggests that Black immigrant families have many advantages compared to native Black families, Hispanic and Southeast Asian immigrant families, and in certain cases, White native families.  These include: relatively high rates of marriage and employment; fluency in English; low consumption of alcohol, tobacco, or drugs during pregnancy; high breastfeeding rates;  fewer birth complications; higher educational expectations for their children; and higher enrollment rates in center-based care.  On the other hand, more than half of Black immigrant families are poor or near-poor, with incomes less than twice the federal poverty level. To the extent that the data will allow, the researchers also explore differences between children of African and Caribbean descent, noting, for example, a greater tendency for Caribbean families to utilize center-based care than African families (87 percent of Caribbean families as compared to 71 percent of African families). The authors also examine the reading skills of children in Black immigrant families at the kindergarten level and note that "Black children...outperform both Black and white children of natives once socioeconomic controls are included."

Parenting Behavior, health, and Cognitive Development among Children in Black Immigrant Families: Comparing the United States and the United Kingdom,
Migration Policy Institute, September, 2012, 31 pp.
Written by sociologist Margot Jackson of Brown University, this paper explores the question of "whether the children of Black immigrants, who constitute an increasingly large fraction of the children of immigrants in the United States, will integrate toward the mainstream of non-Hispanic white America or whether their development will more closely resemble that of Black children with native-born parents." The paper examines the integration of these children across two developmental domains -- health (physical and mental) and cognitive -- and within two national contexts: the United States and the United Kingdom. The author cautions that the findings should be "interpreted cautiously" as the size of the sample (250 UK children and 120 US children) is quite small and does not permit the analysis of families by region of origin, i.e. Africa and the Caribbean. She finds both "favorable and disadvantaged patterns" in the development of these children. In both the U.S. and the U.K., "there is clear evidence of favorable breastfeeding patterns...and high usage of early prenatal care," as well as healthy birth weight and, in the U.K. only, lower asthma risk at age 5. However, Black children from immigrant families, especially in the U.K., perform more poorly on tests of verbal development. She cautions that her study does not control for "selective migration," or the tendency of some people or groups to migrate more frequently than others. She expects that future research will shed light on "how nativity-based inequalities in child development evolve over time..."

Children of Immigrants: Growing National and State Diversity,
Urban Institute, October, 2011, 10 pp.
This research brief tracks growth in the population of children of immigrants age 0 to 17.  Children of immigrants may be immigrants themselves or U.S. born with at least one immigrant parent. By 2009, children of immigrants numbered 16.8 million and constituted 23% of all children, close to one in four of all children in the U.S.  The great majority (14.5 million) were born in the U.S.  Hispanics at 56 percent are the largest minority group among children of immigrants, followed by non-Hispanic Asians (18 percent), whites (18 percent) and blacks (eight percent).  As a result of these changes, the share of U.S. children under 18 who were white decreased from 62 to 56 percent from 2000 to 2009. In nine states, white children were in the minority.

An Imperative for Change: Bridging Special and Language Learning Education to Ensure a Free and Appropriate Education in the Least Restrictive Environment for ELLs with Disabilities in Massachusetts,
The Mauricio Gastón Institute for Latino Community Development and Public Policy, University of Massachusetts, Boston
Noting a sharp rise in the number of English language learners with disabilities in Massachusetts schools - in part resulting from the 2002 state referendum that scrapped the policy of transitional bilingual education - the author of this report examines the problems, policies, and procedures associated with educating immigrant children with disabilities.  She calls attention to the misdiagnosis of disability, especially apparent in the categories of communication and intellectual impairments, which acts to conceal the failure of the school to educate these children.  On the other hand, LEP children with true disabilities are often placed in monolingual classroom environments where they fail to receive grade-level academic instruction in the language they understand best.  Among the many recommendations offered by the author is to place greater emphasis on the education and licensure of teachers of English language Learners who also have training in the education of children with disabilities.  Another is to place ELLs with disabilities with their ELL peers with no disabilities in general language learning classrooms.

The Future of Immigrant Children,
Special Issue of the Journal, "The Future of Children,"
Princeton University and the Brookings Institution, Spring, 2011
This collection of articles provides an overview of recent research on the challenges involved in educating immigrant youth, defined as children 17 years of age or younger with at least one immigrant parent. Such children now constitute 23% of all children in U.S. schools and are estimated to grow to one-third of all children by 2050.  In their
introduction to the issue, Co-editors Marta Tienda and Ron Haskins call attention to the imbalance in public spending between benefits for the elderly -- funded largely through payroll taxes and generally off-limits to budget-cutters -- and educational spending, funded through state and local tax revenues, which tend to contract during recessionary times. Yet the ability of immigrant youth to succeed educationally, acquire the skills necessary to contribute to a 21stcentury economy, and build the tax base to sustain expenditures for the growing senior population is critical to the future of American society. Other articles in this issue discuss risk factors that hamper the educational progress of these children, including the failure to master English prior to the third grade, lack of educational attainment and English proficiency among parents, and lower participation rates in pre-school. Among the policy recommendations put forward by Tienda and Haskins in a policy brief included in the collection are the following: provide preschool education to all low-income immigrant children, perhaps by allowing states to control Head Start funding; and passing a modified version of the DREAM Act.

The Head Start Child Development and Early Learning Framework,
U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services (HHS), Administration for Children and Families, Office of Head Start, December, 2010, 22 pp
Recognizing that the population of children served by Head Start (3-5 years olds) and other early childhood programs is growing more diverse, and that the original Child Development and Early Learning Framework, published in 2000, needed to be revised, HHS has modified the Framework to reflect this diversity and trends in child development research. The Framework is organized into 11 domains, 37 domain elements, and over 100 examples. Although 10 of the 11 domains pertain to all children, one domain new to the revised Framework - English Language Development - applies to children who speak a language other than English at home. The Framework makes clear that dual language learners must have opportunities to "demonstrate their abilities, skills, and knowledge in any language, including their home language."

Young Children of Immigrants:  The Leading Edge of America's future,
The Urban institute, August, 2010, 13 pp
This brief discusses the life circumstances of immigrant children, defined as children age 0 to 8 (whether born abroad or in the U.S.) with at least one foreign-born parent. In 2008, 24% of children in the U.S. fell into this category, up from 20% in 2000.  Percentages vary significantly by state, with seven states -- including California, New York, and New Jersey -- higher than 30%.  The brief presents data on pre-school enrollment,  English language proficiency, educational background of parents, and family poverty for this group of children. Data is broken down by state and nationality background.

The Integration of Immigrants and Their Families in Maryland: A Look at
Children of Immigrants and Their Families in Maryland
Prepared for the Annie E. Casey Foundation by The Urban Institute, June, 2010, 65 pp
This is the second in a two-part examination of the immigrant population in the State of Maryland. This report provides a detailed portrait of the children of immigrants and their families.  The number of Maryland children with at least one immigrant parent more than doubled from 121,000 in 1990 to 253,000 in 2006. Without this increase, the state's population would have stagnated or declined, due to the low fertility rate of native-born white parents. The report also provides information on the 69,000 children of immigrants living in low-income families, i.e. families with incomes below twice the poverty level.  Although many enjoy "protective" factors, such as a higher percentage of two-parent families than among children of native families, they also face special burdens, such as lower rates of participation in center-based care and more crowded housing, burdens which need to be taken into consideration in designing effective educational and social policies.

Minority Parent and Community Engagement:  Best Practices and Policy Recommendations for Closing the Gaps in Student Achievement,
Mexican American legal Defense and Education Fund (MALDEF) and National Education Association (NEA), June, 2010, 43 pp
This report grew out of a "Minority Parent Engagement Summit" sponsored by MALDEF and the NEA in 2009. The report details "best practices" from "several well-established parental engagement organizations."  The practices are reported by organizations serving the African-American, American Indian, Asian and Pacific Islander, Latino, and multiethnic groups. A section of the report describes barriers to engagement that appear to be common to all communities. The report concludes with seven overarching policy recommendations, including "increas(ing) accountability for the implementation of parent engagement plans and policies" and "increase(ing) professional development for school staff on parent engagement."

New Start for Youth Study:  An Examination of the Settlement Pathways of Newcomer Youth
Canadian Immigrant Settlement Sector Alliance/Alliance Canadiennne du Sector de l'Establissement des Immigrants, April, 2010, 73 pp
With the second highest immigrant population in the world, of which 36% are 24 years of age or under, Canada has a vital interest in promoting the successful integration of its newcomer youth.  This study, prepared by a researcher at the University of Guelph and funded by the Canadian government, examines a cross-section of 125 young people in five provinces of Canada. All are legal residents between the ages of 11 to 20 years who have lived in Canada for five years or less. Using surveys, personal statements, and focus groups, the study opens a window on the experiences and problems of these young people. The study also inquires into coping mechanisms and solicits recommendations from the participants as to strategies that might ease the transition to their new environment. Among these strategies are "more formalized mentorship/buddy/peer support programs in schools and the community that help to create ‘instant' social networks," and the development of a "'Welcome to Canada' multilingual survival handbooks for newcomer youth that could be provided to youth prior and/or after their arrival in the country."

Reading and Language Outcomes of a Five-Year Randomized Evaluation of Transitional Bilingual Education,
Johns Hopkins University and the Success for All Foundation, January, 2010, 21 pp.
This study followed a group of LEP immigrant school children over a five-year period in an effort to determine whether English immersion or bilingual education produced stronger educational outcomes. No significant differences could be found, leading the researchers to conclude "that what matters the quality of instruction, not the language of instruction. Schools may choose to teach English language learners in either their native language or in English for many reasons, including cultural, economic, or political rationales. Yet the claims that this choice is crucial for ultimate learning of English or Spanish reading are not supported by the data from this experiment."

Garden State Dreams: In-State Tuition for Undocumented Kids,
New Jersey Policy Perspective, January, 2010, 12 pp.
This policy brief argues for the passage of in-state tuition legislation in New Jersey, citing its economic and social benefits to the state. Such legislation would encourage Latino students, already suffering from high drop-out rates, to stay in high school and graduate. It would also ease the burden on undocumented families, among the lowest income earners in the state, trying to cover the escalating cost of public college tuition in New Jersey, now the second highest in the nation, and do it without access to state financial assistance. The legislation would also encourage high-ranking students to continue their education in New Jersey, rather than seeking admission and scholarship assistance from private colleges in other states. Finally, the author sees benefits for all New Jersey residents from students achieving their potential, getting good jobs, paying taxes, and spending money to stimulate the economy.

In-State Tuition for Undocumented Students and the DREAM Act, 
Voices for Utah Children, October, 2009, 19 pp.
A multi-issue child advocacy organization, Voices for Utah Children produced this report with support from the Annie E. Casey Foundation. The report provides an informative account of the history and political dynamics of in-tuition legislation in the State of Utah - legislation which has withstood numerous attempts at repeal since first passed in 2002. The report summarizes the arguments on both sides of the issue, discusses pending court challenges to similar legislation in California and Kansas, and urges passage of the federal DREAM Act to settle the issue once and for all.


Language and Education: The Missing Link,
Save the Children and the CfBT Education Trust, 2009, 62 pp.
Focusing on children in low and middle income countries, this report highlights the significance of instructional language in educational outcomes. Despite the “clear agreement” among educators and linguistic experts that teaching in the mother tongue or first language of children provides a stronger foundation for educational success, there are 2.4 billion people around the world who speak languages that are seldom used in the classroom. Children from rural areas are particularly disadvantaged by this omission. The authors contend that such practices lead to high drop-out rates and fuel social unrest, particularly in countries with high levels of linguistic diversity and ethnic conflict. The authors suggest “at least six years of mother tongue education (in the primary grades), with the gradual introduction of other languages from an early stage.” The report faults donor agencies, particularly in the U.S. and U.K, for not devoting sufficient attention to this issue, and praises countries like the Philippines for their commitment to the use of mother tongues in the classroom.

Listening to Latinas: Barriers to High School Graduation,
National Women's Law Center & Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund, August, 2009, 43 pp.
Noting that Latinas are dropping out of school in alarming numbers, the authors of this report bring the voice of Latina students to the educational policy debate. Based on a non-random survey sample of 335 Latina high school students, of whom 90 were foreign-born, enrolled in ten schools and centers around the country, and follow-up, in-person interviews and focus group sessions with 47 of these students, the report explores the barriers that limit educational attainment and life chances for Latina girls. The report concludes with a range of recommendations for Congress, the U.S. Department of Education, states, local communities, school administrators and teachers to address these problems

Children of Immigrants:  National and State Characteristics,
The Urban Institute, August, 2009, 18 pp
Based on data from the 2005 and 2006 American Community Survey, this research brief examines the growing number of immigrant children in the nation's schools. Nationally, the number doubled from 8 million in 1990 to 16.4 million in 2007 -- representing 23% of all children from age 0 to 17.  Seventy-three percent (73%) of all these children lived in the "big six" states of California, Texas, New York, Florida, Illinois, and New Jersey.  The authors opine that "children of immigrants deserve special attention because they face many universal risk factors to children's well-being, such as lower parental education and family incomes" as well as "factors unique to immigration, such as lack of parental citizenship and English proficiency." A companion web tool enables user to obtain more detailed data about individual states.

Legal Issues for School Districts Related to the Education of Undocumented Children,
National Education Association and National School Boards Association, 2009, 30 pp.
This publication addresses 13 questions that school districts face related to the education of undocumented children, including such issues as enrollment policy (when parents live outside the district), student participation in extracurricular activities, student access to specialized services, school custodial responsibilities after ICE workplace raids, and policies surrounding B-2 (Tourist) visa holders. The publication has been sent to every school district in the country and has been endorsed by 16 national professional education associations.

Fulfilling the Promise of Preschool for All: Insights into Issues Affecting Access for Selected Immigrant Groups in Chicago,
The Urban Institute, 2009, 37 pp
In July 2006, Illinois passed the landmark Preschool for All (PFA) program, designed to ensure access for all 3- and 4-year-old children to 2 ½ hours of free, quality early childhood education. As the program is voluntary in nature, special efforts have been made to enroll the most vulnerable children, including children of immigrant parents. This study focuses on two communities of lower incidence (less numerous) immigrant families in Chicago: Nigerian and Pakistani. The authors draw a number of conclusions from their work, including the importance of considering the specific needs and concerns of particular immigrant communities in outreach efforts, rather than assuming that all immigrants are alike.

Quality Benchmark for Cultural Competence Project,
National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC), June, 2009, 25 pp.
Through extensive discussion with stakeholders and experts in the early childhood field, and with support from A. L. Mailman Family Foundation, NAEYC produced this tool to assess the level of cultural competence within early childhood programs participating in quality rating and improvement systems being implemented in 19 states. NAEYC proposes seven key approaches for consideration by the field, including " upon the home languages and dialects of the children, families and staff in programs and support the preservation of home languages." The report includes a matrix that explicates each approach, gives ideas for implementation, and suggests possible measurements.

Partnering with Parents and Families to Support Immigrant and Refugee Children at School, 
Center for Health and Health Care in Schools, The George Washington University, June, 2009, 15 pp.
This issue brief discusses the "Caring Across Communities" initiative of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, a project that is spurring the development of 15 model school-based programs across the United States designed to address the "unique emotional and behavioral health issues" of immigrant and refugee children from low-income families. Supported with grants totaling $4.5 million, all programs are experimenting with innovative ways of reaching out to immigrant families and communities, on the assumption that healthy families, fully engaged in the educational process, are crucial to the emotional health and education success of immigrant children.

Young Lives on Hold:  The College Dreams of Undocumented Students,
College Board, April, 2009, 27 pp.
Noting that 15% of the undocumented population in the United States is comprised of children, many of whom have spent most of their formative years and received most of their schooling in the United States, the College Board bemoans the waste of human potential involved in denying them opportunities to move on to higher education, drive, vote, and work in the United States. The Board urges passage of the bipartisan "Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors Act" (The Dream Act) to enable qualified young people who graduate from high school and who have lived in the U.S. since childhood to acquire legal status if they go to college or join the military. The report sees no adverse impact on native-born students in the ten states that permit undocumented students to attend college at in-state tuition rates.

English Learners in Boston Public Schools:  Enrollment, Engagement and Academic Outcomes, AY2003-AY2006,
The Mauricio Gaston Institute for Latino Community Development and Public Policy, University of Massachusetts, Boston, April, 2009, 126 pp.
This report examines the impact of the English Only movement in Massachusetts. After approval of a referendum by Massachusetts voters in 2002, sheltered English immersion (SEI) programs -- not to exceed one year in length -- became the default strategy for transitioning limited English proficient (LEP) students into the academic mainstream. Transitional bilingual education (TBE) programs were discontinued, unless at least 20 parents requested waivers and received approvals from local school districts. This report examines the experience of the Boston school district and its English language learners during the post-referendum period. In the beginning, Boston shifted 45.2% of its LEP students into mainstream classes. The district also adopted a "discouraging approach to parental waivers," thereby reducing the availability of other educational options, including TBE. As a result, drop-out rates increased, and the number of LEP students in special education classes more than doubled.  The report contains many recommendations for systemic improvements in Boston's education of English language learners.

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Recommendations for Addressing the Needs of English Language Learners, Center for Applied Linguistics, March 20, 2009, 23 pp.
Prepared by a national work group of 14 experts familiar with research findings and best practices in the education of immigrant children, this report describes how the stimulus act can be utilized to improve schooling for English language learners. Noting that these students "represent a large proportion of students at risk of underachievement," the authors make over 50 recommendations designed to take advantage of the short-term duration of this funding.  Many are focused on building infrastructure and a stronger evidence base for future educational reform, including modifications to the No Child Left Behind Act.

Dual Language Learners in the Early Years: Getting Ready to Succeed in School,
National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition, November, 2008, 45 pp.
Dual language learners are defined as "children from 3 to 6 years of age who are learning a second languagae while still acquiring their first."  Looking at general indicators of readiness for school, this report finds that dual language learners are at special risk for falling behind their monolingual peers.  Reviewing relevant research, the report outlines ways to better prepare these children for school, to conduct appropriate assessment and to design effective instructional strategies.

Teaching English Language Learners: What the Research Does -- and Does Not -- Say, American Educator, Summer, 2008, 19 pp.
One in nine students in the US is an English language learner. What's the best way to help these students become fluent in English and master the academic content? Existing research cannot fully answer that question, but it can offer teachers some guidelines. Focusing on two recent reviews of that research, Claude Goldenberg, Professor of Education at Stanford University, highlights the most promising instructional approaches and discusses important questions that the research has yet to answer.

Challenging Common Myths About Young English language Learners, Foundation for Child Development, January, 2008, 11 pp.
Produced by the Foundation's New American Children initiative, this report challenges six myths often associated with the education of young immigrant children, including the supposed advantages of total English immersion as an educational strategy and the assumption that Latino parents undervalue the importance of pre-kindergarten education.

Immigrant Integration Educator Resource Guide, The Colorado Trust and the Colorado Department of Education, 2008, 48 pp.
This guide provides an overview of the key areas that influence immigrant integration in schools - from school enrollment, culture and classroom instruction to family and community outreach. The guide contains links to useful resources in each of the main topical areas. Although state-specific to Colorado, the Guide is noteworthy for its use of immigrant integration as a frame for analyzing the immigrant school experience.

New Jersey's Special Review Assessment:  Loophole or Lifeline? A Policy Brief,
The Graduate Center, CUNY, Education Law Center, Institute on Law and Education Policy (Rutgers University), Project Grad, August, 2007, 68 pp.
Students for whom English is not their first language often struggle to pass standardized tests, especially high stakes high school graduation exams. Many states provide alternative assessments to prove the mastery of core skills. New Jersey's proposal to discontinue its "special review assessment," on grounds that it represented "institutionalized low expectations" prompted the issuance of this multi-agency report, one of whose recommendation is that New Jersey "continue to offer multiple assessment routes to graduation."

Paying the Price: The Impact of Immigration Raids on America's Children, A Report by The Urban Institute for the National Council of La Raza, 2007, 99 pp.
This study examines the impact of workplace immigration raids on 500 children in three communities:  Greeley, Colorado; Grand Island, Nebraska; and New Bedford, Massachusetts. The disruption of family life, loss of family income, and resulting dislocation create emotional turmoil in the lives of these children, most of whom are U.S. citizens. As the pace of immigrant enforcement is likely to intensify in future years, the report gives policy recommendations to Congress, ICE, schools, social service and public agencies.

Double the Work: Challenges and Solutions to Acquiring Language and Academic Literacy for Adolescent English Language Learners, Report to Carnegie Corporation of New York, 2007, 83 pp.
Middle and high schools are seeing expanding enrollments of students whose primary language is not English. These students must perform "double the work" of native English speakers, i.e. learning English while mastering core academic content areas. This report recommends an array of best practices and strategies for surmounting the major educational challenges faced by limited English proficient students.

The Challenges to Multiculturalism in Massachusetts, The Mauricio Gaston Institute for Latino Public Policy and Community Development, University of Massachusetts, 2006, 10 pp
An anti-bilingual education referendum was approved by the voters of Massachusetts in November of 2002. The referendum read, in part, "The current state law providing for transitional bilingual education in public schools will be replaced with a law requiring that, with limited exceptions, all public school children must be taught English by being taught all subjects in English and being placed in English language classrooms." This report analyzes the tactics of referendum sponsors, media coverage, and - through the use of focus groups --  the thinking of voters on this important issue. (Abstract reposted through agreement with the Immigrant Learning Center and the Immigration Research and Information web site)

Developing Literacy in Second-Langauge Learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth, SRI International and the Center for Applied Linguistics, 2006, 15 pp (Executive Summary only)
This report summarized the findings of a four-year, $1.8 million dollar study funded by the fedederal Department of Education "to identify, assess, and synthesize research on the education of language-minority children and youth with regard to literacy attainment and to produce a comprehensive report on this literature." One of the key findings was that students instructed in native language as well as in English attain higher rates of English reading proficiency. The finding held true at both the elementary and high school levels. Because of the controversial nature of this finding, the Bush Administration declined to publish the study.

Effects of the Implementation of Proposition 227 on the Education of English Learners, K-12: Findings from a Five-year Evaluation,
American Institutes for Research, January 24, 2006, 228 pp.
This state-mandated, five-year study of California's Proposition 227 found no conclusive evidence that one instructional model for educating English learners, such as full English immersion or a bilingual approach, is more effective for English learners than another. The factors identified as most critical to their success were: staff capacity to address English learners' linguistic and academic needs; school wide focus on English language development and standards-based instruction; shared priorities and expectations in educating English learners and systematic, ongoing assessment and careful data use to guide instruction.

A Look at Immigrant Youth:  Prospects and Promising Practices, National Conference of State Legislatures, Children's Policy Initiative, March, 2005, 18 pp.
This report analyzes the barriers facing immigrant youth, resources available from the federal government to address those barriers, and requirements under the No Child Left Behind Act for LEP students. Among the promising practices reviewed in the report are newcomer programs, after school programs, and parental involvement approaches.

Denied at the Door: Language Barriers Block Immigrant Parents from School Involvement, Advocates for Children of New York and the New York Immigration Coalition, February 19, 2004, 55 pp.
Based on a survey of immigrant parents and students in the New York City School System, this report documents widespread failure to communicate in native language with immigrant parents. Without parental involvement in the education process, students will be deprived of parental support and schools will not have the full cooperation of parents.

Integrating Students of Limited English Proficiency into Standards-Based Reform in the Abbott Districts, Education Law Center, 2004, 59 pp.
This resource guide helps school administrators and teachers understand the special problems and challenges facing students of limited English proficiency attending school in New Jersey's 30 Abbott districts. The guide summarizes effective instructional practices and gives examples of successful schools.