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Groups arranged in alphabetical order. Scroll down page for all entries. Abstracts are chronological within groups. Selection does not necessarily imply endorsement of findings or research methodology by Diversity Dynamics and its partner organizations. We regret that we may not be able to repair broken links promptly. Page begun in 2012.


Migration Policy Institute, September 9, 2021, 10 pp.
Author: Jeanne Batalova

This report provides a demographic overview of the Afghan population in the U.S. on the eve of the resettlement of those evacuated in August of 2021. As of 2019, the Afghan-American population stood at 132,000, which means that the evacuation raised the Afghan population in the U.S. by at least 50% almost overnight. Similarly, the Afghan-American population had more than doubled between 2010 and 2019. The report also includes data on geographic distribution, age, education, and literacy rates and English proficiency. While the report does mention the native languages of the Afghan population in the U.S., it lists both “Farsi” and “Dari” separately, which reflects how respondents answered the question, because the Afghan dialect of Farsi basically is Dari, and sometimes people will use the names interchangeably when speaking in English. The Pashto-speaking population rose from one-quarter to one-third of the total Afghan population in the U.S.  While Farsi and Dari are listed separately, Hazaragi, a dialect of Dari spoken by the Hazaras, is not. In fact there is no mention of ethnicity or religious sectarianism in this report, which is essentially concerned with Afghan-born residents as a nationality in the U.S.  (William Westerman, New Jersey City University)

Sub-Saharan African Immigrants in the United States,
Migration Policy Institute, May 11, 2022, 14 pp.

Authors: Jane Lorenzi & Jeanne Batalova
This paper presents a statistical portrait of immigrants from the 51 countries of sub-Saharan Africa. There were 2.1 million sub-Saharan African immigrants in the U.S. in 2019, constituting five percent of the foreign-born population of the U.S. These immigrants make up a growing share of Black immigrants in the U.S., most of whom originated in the Caribbean. The five top countries of origin for sub-Saharan immigrants are Nigeria, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, and Somalia. Top states of destination during the 2015-19 period were Texas, New York, Maryland, California, and Minnesota. Only 25 percent of immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa were limited English proficient (compared to 46 percent of immigrants overall). While sub-Saharan immigrants had higher levels of education than immigrants overall (42 percent had a bachelor’s degree or higher vs. 33 percent of all immigrants and U.S.-born adults), and have a higher U.S. labor market participation rate than immigrants and native-born adults, they have lower household incomes and higher rates of poverty than immigrants overall. More than half (54 percent) of Sub-Saharan immigrants immigrated to the U.S. through family ties. Most of the rest were originally admitted as refugees (26 percent) or came through the Diversity Visa lottery (10 percent). Only nine percent came through employment preferences. (Maurice Belanger, Maurice Belanger Associates)


Power of the Purse: The Contributions of Black Immigrants in the United States,
New American Economy, March 19, 2020, 12 pp.
This report examines integration metrics for black immigrants to the U.S., particularly with regard to their economic impact. The authors have compiled statistics on the population of black immigrants, their geographic distribution (by state), national origins and rate of growth, and distribution by state of black immigrant voters. Economic data include earnings, taxes paid to federal, state and local governments, spending power, top industries of employment and top occupations. There are also statistics on educational attainment (with immigrants from Africa having among the highest levels of educational attainment in the U.S.), English language proficiency, and rate of naturalization. A noteworthy observation is that the three top occupations held by black immigrants are healthcare-related — nursing assistants, registered nurses, and personal care aides. In short, the publication provides a wide-ranging snapshot of a growing population of immigrants in the U.S. (Maurice Belanger, Maurice Belanger Consulting) 

Sub-Saharan African Immigrants in the United States
Migration Policy Institute, November 6, 2019, 14 pp.
Authors:  Carlos Echeverria-Estrada & Jeanne Batalova

In 1980, there were fewer than 150,000 immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa residing in the U.S. In 2019, there were more than two million. “Sub-Saharan Africans Immigrants in the United States” by the Migration Policy Institute looks at the geographic distribution, demographic characteristics and naturalization patterns of immigrants from the 51 countries that constitute sub-Saharan Africa. Using data from the 2010-2018 U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Surveys as well as the World Bank and Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, this brief finds that immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa have higher labor force participation rates than other immigrants or the U.S.-born population, are highly represented in management, business, science and arts occupations, and tend to be well educated. In 2017, 32 percent of U.S.-born citizens had earned at least a bachelor’s degree compared to 40% of immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. The authors also include information about why this population emigrated to the U.S., as some are refugees from conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo or Somalia, some are high-skilled immigrants from Ghana and Nigeria seeking job or school opportunities, some are lottery visa recipients from Cameroon and Liberia and many others are reuniting with family members. The brief finally looks at remittances from sub-Saharan immigrants, which have greatly increased since the early 2000s to $45.7 billion in 2018. (Deb D’Anastasio for The ILC Public Education Institute)

Sub-Saharan African Immigrants in the U.S. Are Often more Educated Than Those in Top European Destinations,
Pew Research Center, April 24, 2018, 24 pp.
Authors:  Monica Anderson & Phillip Connor
More than a million sub-Saharan Africans have migrated to the United States and Europe since 2010. The report Sub-Saharan African Immigrants in the U.S. Are Often More Educated Than Those in Top European Destinations by the Pew Research Center analyzed data from the United Nations, the U.S. Census Bureau's 2015 American Community Survey and Eurostat's 2015 Labor Force Survey to offer a current portrait of these migrants. Immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa who live in the U.S., United Kingdom, France and Portugal are more likely than native-born populations to have some college education. However, the education rate of these immigrants in the United States far surpasses all the others:  69 percent in the U.S. vs. 49 percent in the UK, 30 percent in France, and 27 percent in Portugal. The higher educational attainment rates of sub-Saharan immigrants in developed countries may be due to migration policies that favor those with higher education. Sub-Saharan immigrants in the U.S. had similar employment rates to U.S.-born, but those in Europe have lower employment rates than the native-born. The report also found that a majority of sub-Saharan immigrants in the U.S. and Europe arrived more than a decade ago, with more than 25 percent residing in the destination country for more than 20 years. Colonial histories of some sub-Saharan countries might lead some immigrants to choose to immigrate to one country over another if they have a shared language. Regardless of when the immigrants arrived in the destination country, some are undocumented. Nearly one in seven sub-Saharan immigrants are undocumented, and an estimated 60,000 to 70,000 in Europe have an unknown asylum status (Samah Rizvi for The Immigrant Learning Center's Public Education Institute).

A Rising Share of the U.S. Black Population is Foreign Born,
Pew Research Center, April 9, 2015, 30 pp.
Author: Monica Ande
Since 2000, the foreign-born black population in the U.S. has increased by 56 percent, going from more than 2.4 million to nearly 3.8 million. A Rising Share of the U.S. Black Population is Foreign Born examines the demographic, economic, and geographic characteristics of the foreign-born black population in the U.S. Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau's 2013 American Community Survey and the decennial censuses, the study reports that the number of black immigrants in the U.S. has quadrupled since 1980. Black immigrants now comprise 8.7 percent of the total black population, and according to Census Bureau projections, this percentage will continue to increase. While half of all black immigrants are from the Caribbean, with Jamaica accounting for 18 percent of the national total, the recent growth in size has been driven by African immigration. Between 2000 and 2013, the number of black African immigrants living in the U.S. has increased by 137 percent. The report finds that, compared to all U.S. immigrants, immigrant blacks are more likely to hold U.S. citizenship and speak English proficiently. It also finds that the U.S. black immigrant population is geographically concentrated in just two regions, the Northeast and South, which are home to more than 82 percent of all black immigrants. (Louisa Johnson for The ILC Public Education Institute)

The Foreign-Born Population from Africa: 2008-2012,
U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey Briefs, October, 2014, 10 pp.
Authors: Christine P. Gambino, Edward N. Trevelyan & John Thomas Fitzwater
This brief discusses the size, place of birth, geographical distribution, and educational attainment of the foreign born from Africa. The total African population in the U.S. is 1.6 million, or about 4 percent of the total foreign-born population. The four largest groups are Nigerian (14 percent of the total African population), Ethiopian (10- percent), Egyptian (9 percent), and Ghanaian (8 percent). Forty-one percent of the African-born population had a bachelor's degree or higher in 2008-2012, compared with 28 percent of the overall foreign-born. Egypt (64 percent) and Nigeria (61 percent) were among the African countries with the highest proportion of bachelors and higher degrees. The report includes maps and charts showing states with the high concentrations of African immigrants. North Dakota (19.4 percent) and Minnesota (19.2) were the two states with the highest percentage of African immigrants to total foreign-born population. New York, California, Texas, and Maryland had the highest absolute numbers of African immigrants.

Combatting the AAPI Perpetual Foreigner Stereotype,
New American Economy, May 20, 2021, 14 pp.

Although nearly 45 percent of all foreign-born Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders have lived in the United States for more than 20 years, the rise in anti-Asian bias attacks has revived a wave of cultural tropes against members of these communities. According to findings from the New American Economy, 1 in 3 Asian American and Pacific Islanders were born in the United States, even though immigration from Asia remains substantial. Many of those who were born abroad have taken steps to become naturalized as American citizens. Counting naturalized immigrants and the U.S.-born, there are over 10.7 million Asian American and Pacific Islander eligible voters in the U.S., making up 4.7% of all eligible voters in the nation. The report also points out that there were approximately 1.8 million undocumented AAPI immigrants in 2019, who contributed $49.3 billion in earnings to the U.S. economy. These statistics directly counter the perpetual foreign stereotype that paints AAPI individuals as outsiders regardless of where they were born, how long they have lived in the United States, and how much they have contributed to the American economy and society. (The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)

Immigrants from Asia in the United States,
Migration Policy Institute, March 10, 2021, 18 pp.
Authors: Mary Hanna & Jeanne Batalova
Asian immigration to the U.S. has grown significantly since the passage of the 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act, which eliminated discriminatory provisions of earlier immigration statutes. Today, immigrants from Asia account for nearly one-third of the 44.9 million immigrants in the United States. According to this article from the Migration Policy Institute, based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau, the Department of Homeland Security’s Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, and the World Bank, India, China and the Philippines were the top origin countries of Asian immigrants since 2013. While Asian immigrants settle throughout the U.S., the primary destinations continue to be the states of California (30 percent), New York (nine percent) and Texas (eight percent). Immigrants from Asia have significantly higher education attainment levels than both all foreign- and U.S.-born adults. They are overrepresented in skilled occupations like management, business, science and arts. Their occupational profile produces significantly higher income for Asian immigrants compared to the overall foreign- and U.S.-born populations. Asian immigrants, on average, naturalize at a higher rate than other immigrant groups. However, their source of legal permanent residency is much less dependent on family ties and more on employment. (Jaisang Sun for the Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute) 

State of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders Series
The Center for American Progress & AAPI Data (University of California, Riverside)
Authors: Karthick Ramakrishnan & Farah A. Ahmad
During the last decade, more immigrants came to the U.S. from Asia than from any other region of the world, including Latin America. However, as authors Karthick Ramakrishnan and Farah A. Ahmad argue, data on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) are not easily available or presented in an accessible fashion. To address this problem, they developed six fact sheets on AAPIs covering the following topics: public opinion, demographics, education, immigration, language diversity and English proficiency, and civic participation and democracy. The fact sheets, according to the Center, provide an "unprecedented" look at this community. AAPIs tend to be progressive on a range of issues. Compared to the U.S. average, for example, AAPIs favor bigger government and more services. Their impact on education continues to increase with AAPI enrollment in K-12 growing fourfold between 1979 and 2009 and by another 31 percent by 2019 (projected). Given their tremendous diversity in national origins and ethnicity, their language diversity and English proficiency have serious implications on education and workforce development. Immigration, too, is a key issue for AAPIs as about two-thirds of Asian Americans are immigrants. The fact sheets also note the rising number of Asian American voters, who voted decisively for Barack Obama in the 2012 presidential election. (Denzil Mohammed, The Immigrant Learning Center, Public Education Institute)

iCount: A Data Quality Movement for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Higher Education
Educational Testing Service and the National Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islander Research in Education, June, 2013, 33 pp.
Authors: Robert Teranishi, Libby Lok, & Back Mai Dolly Nguyen
Citing numerous calls over the last two decades to disaggregate data so that the educational experiences and outcomes of specific Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI) groups are revealed, this study argues that "the aggregation of AAPI sub-groups into a single data category is a civil rights issue" because it masks significant gaps in educational participation and achievement on the part of some groups. For example, 37.4 percent of Cambodian adults and 29.4 percent of Vietnamese lack a high school diploma, as compared to 7.9 percent of Filipinos and 5.3 percent of Japanese. There are also significant differences in the median income of AAPI sub-groups. The authors describe a case study of a successful AAPI data disaggregation movement at the University of California - a student-driven campaign called Count Me In. Collecting and reporting data by sub-groups has permitted administrators at the University to see what student populations are underrepresented and to use resources for programs and services in a more effective manner. The report has a separate chapter devoted to the needs of Pacific Islander communities -- one of the most disadvantaged segments of the AAPI population. The report recommends that educational institutions make disaggregated data available to institutional researchers, administrators, faculty, and students and urges philanthropic institutions and the U.S. Department of Education to be partners in the data refinement effort.

Spotlight on Asian American & Pacific Islander Poverty: A Demographic Profile
National Coalition for Asian Pacific American Community Development (CAPACD),
June, 2013, 57 pp.
Author: Josh Ishimatsu
Produced by national CAPACD, a network of more than 100 community-based organizations and individuals active in 17 states, this report seeks to illuminate the plight of the nearly two million Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPI) who live in poverty. Often overlooked in the common Asian-American success narrative, AAPIs are one of the fastest-growing poverty populations. Since the advent of the Great Recession in 2007, the number of AAPI living in poverty has grown by 38 percent, second only to the 42 percent growth in the number of Hispanic poor. Surprisingly, the native-born segment of the AAPI population is growing faster than the immigrant segment, even though immigrants constitute a majority of all AAPIs. The ethnic groups with the highest concentrations of poverty are Hmong (27.0 percent), Bangladeshi (21.1 percent), Tongan (18.9 percent), Cambodian (18.8 percent), Samoan (16.2 percent), and Pakistani (16.0 percent). The report also examines the geographic and residential settlement patterns of poor AAPIs and finds flaws in a 2012 report by the Pew Research Center entitled The Rise of Asian Americans. Specifically, the CAPACD report finds higher residential concentrations of AAPI poverty than suggested in the PEW report and notes that most poor AAPIs live in majority minority neighborhoods. The author concludes "that the recent media noise about the disappearance of inner-city concentrations of AAPIs (e.g. Chinatowns) has been exaggerated." Given the diverse settlement patterns of AAPIs, the author suggests that "neighborhood-based and regional-based approaches are both appropriate in outreaching to and serving poor AAPIs." Moreover, because poor AAPIs live in diverse neighborhoods, "there are opportunities to build multi-racial and multi-ethnic coalitions around community development issues at neighborhood, regional and national levels."

The Rise of Asian Americans,
Pew Research Center, June 19, 2012, 215 pp.
This report is based on a telephone survey of 3,511 Asian Americans ages 18 or over in all 50 states conducted from January 3 to March 27, 2012. Interviews were done in English and the 7 most common Asian languages: Cantonese, Hindi, Japanese, Korean, Mandarin, Tagalog and Vietnamese. In order to permit comparisons among Asian sub-groups, interviews were completed with at least 500 respondents for each of the six largest Asian sub-groups: Chinese, Filipinos, Asian Indians, Japanese, Koreans, and Vietnamese. The report also draws on a detailed analysis of economic and demographic data from the Census Bureau and other official sources. The first chapter highlights the socio-economic, educational and household characteristics of Asian-Americans in general, along with comparisons across racial and ethnic groups (white, black, and Hispanic) and across the six largest Asian groups. Other chapters cover the following topics: impressions of life in the U.S., intergroup relations, transnational ties, family and personal values, and political and civic participation. As nearly three-quarters (74 percent) of Asian-Americans were born abroad, the report also differentiates between the native-born and foreign-born contingents. The report states that Asian-Americans "are the best-educated, highest-income, fastest-growing race group in the country." It should be noted that the report has drawn sharp criticism from many Asian organizations for its perceived neglect of other Asian communities with lower educational and economic outcomes, e.g. Burmese, Laotians, Cambodians, and for its perpetuation of the "model minority" myth. For a summary of this critique, go to the following link.

Asians in the U.S. Labor Force: Profile of a Diverse Population,
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Monthly Labor Review, November, 2011, 22 pp.
This article marks the first time that BLS has published data from the Current Population Survey about specific Asian groups in the United States. The groups examined are the largest ones in the country: Chinese (22 percent of all Asians), Asian Indians (18 percent), Filipinos (17 percent), Vietnamese (11 percent), Koreans (10 percent) and Japanese (6 percent). Many of the data sets are disaggregated by nativity, making possible comparisons between the foreign-born and native-born in each group, as well as more focused attention on the immigrant cohort. The article examines labor force participation and employment characteristics, as well as educational attainment, naturalization rates and family characteristics.


Brazilian Immigrants in the United States,

Migration Policy Institute, August 4, 2022, 14 pp.
Authors: Jaret Waters & Jeanne Batalova

The Brazilian immigrant population in the United States rose nearly 50 percent between 2010 and 2019, from 340,00 to 502,000. The demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of this huge flow of people are the subject of the latest Migration Policy Institute country profile entitled “Brazilian Immigrants in The United States.” The authors allude to an economic downturn in Brazil at the start of 2012 as the primary cause of this rapid increase in immigration to the U.S. Brazilians now represent approximately 1 percent of all immigrants in the U.S. Their numbers have been increasing steadily since their initial arrivals in 1980 -- doubling roughly every decade since then. Now, the U.S. has the highest Brazilian immigrant population of any country in the world. These immigrants have higher educational attainment and household income than other immigrant groups. Half of these immigrants reside in just three states: Florida, Massachusetts, and California. Data for this analysis were drawn from the 2019 American Community Survey.


Brazilian Immigrants in the United States,
Migration Policy Institute, August 29, 2019, 8 pp.
Authors: Brittany Blizzard& Jeanne Batalova

By 2017, the number of Brazilian immigrants in the United States had reached 450,000 – a nearly one-third increase since 2010, a span of time marked by political and economic turmoil in Brazil. The article “Brazilian Immigrants in the United States” traces the history of Brazilian immigration from the early 1980’s to the present, and examines their geographic distribution, English proficiency, income, education, employment, naturalization rates, and remittance patterns. The article utilizes U.S. Census data, Department of Homeland Security immigration statistics and Customs and Border Patrol (CBP) apprehension data to track changes in Brazilian immigration over time.  The study highlights the work history and status of Brazilian immigrants.  While previously relaxed immigration laws allowed Brazilians to live and work in the U.S. for short periods of time, a pattern called “yo yo” migration, stricter immigration laws caused an increase in both visa overstays and deportation rates. Today, Brazilian immigrants are clustered in five states (Florida, Massachusetts, California, New Jersey and New York). Their households tend to have higher educational attainment and English proficiency than the overall immigrant population. However, many are undocumented and, as a population, they are less likely to be naturalized citizens as compared to other immigrant populations. (Olivia Pickard for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)

Brazilians in the United States: 1980-2007,
Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies, City University of New York, March, 2010, 18 pp.
This study examines the growth and changing demographic profile of the Brazilian population in the U.S. California and New York's share of the Brazilian population declined over the 27 year span of this study. By 2007, Florida (22%) and Massachusetts (18%) had become the states with the largest percentages of Brazilians, followed by New Jersey with 10.4%. The study also looks at educational levels; median household income; employment, unemployment rates, and poverty rates; English language ability and bilingualism; and citizenship status. Among the findings: almost a third of the Brazilian population in 2007 had a BA degree or higher; and median household income for the group as a whole surpassed that of Latinos and non-Hispanic whites.


Caribbean Immigrants in the United States
Migration Policy Institute, July 7, 2022, 16 pp.
Authors: Jane Lorenzi & Jeanne Batalova

This article provides a sociodemographic profile of Caribbean immigrants in the U.S. The authors begin by briefly outlining the history of Caribbean migration to the U.S., with special attention to U.S. policies directed at Cuban and Haitian migrants. The authors provide details on a number of demographic characteristics, and describe differences among migrants of the 13 countries and 17 dependent territories included in this population. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants come from Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, and Haiti. Most Caribbean immigrants (two-thirds) reside in Florida and New York. Caribbean immigrants are older, on average, than the foreign-born overall, with more than a quarter of Cuban immigrants aged 65 and older. Caribbean immigrants are more likely to have completed high school, but less likely to have completed college than the overall foreign-born population, and have household incomes slightly lower than immigrant households overall. The article also provides information on employment rates, labor force participation, poverty levels, immigration pathways, and other characteristics. (Maurice Belanger, Maurice Belanger Associates

Caribbean Immigrants in the United States,
Migration Policy Institute, February 13, 2019, 15 pp.
Authors:  Jie Zong & Jeanne Batalova

This brief by the Migration Policy Institute offers an updated portrait of Caribbean immigrants, who accounted for about one-tenth of the 44.5 million immigrants in the U.S in 2017. Using data from a variety of sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau and the United National Population Division, the report begins by briefly discussing the history of migration from Caribbean countries. Beginning in the 1940s, U.S. companies recruited English-speaking immigrants from Caribbean countries to work in agriculture. Workers with other skills, such as nurses, came later. In addition, revolution in Cuba, political troubles in the Dominican Republic, and natural disasters in Haiti caused many to flee to the United States. The brief offers a snapshot of the current Caribbean immigrant population including size, geographic distribution, educational attainment, socioeconomic status, and levels of remittances. For example, about 63 percent of Caribbean immigrants live in the New York and Miami metropolitan areas; Caribbean immigrants are more likely to be proficient in English than the total U.S. immigrant population; Caribbean immigrant adults overall were more likely to have graduated from high school than overall foreign-born adults; and in 2018 global remittances to Caribbean countries totaled $12.6 billion. (Deb D'Anastasio for The Immigrant Learning Center's Public Education Institute)

A Demographic Profile of Black Caribbean Immigrants in the United States,
Migration Policy Institute, April, 2012, 21 pp.
Written by Penn State Professor Kevin J.A. Thomas, this study examines Black Caribbean immigrants, both as a group in itself, and by country of origin. Among the major findings are the following: "While Black Caribbean immigrants are overrepresented among the less educated and underrepresented among the highly educated, they report strong English language skills, become US citizens at high rates, and exhibit high levels of labor force participation. Notably Black Caribbean immigrants report higher earnings than their African counterparts, despite the fact that Black African immigrants are among the best-educated immigrant groups in the United States...The geographic concentration of Black Caribbean immigrants in states such as New York and Florida long destinations for Caribbean immigrants, may lend integration advantages to the population, in part because of their potential influence over politics and public policy. Yet compared to immigrants and natives, Black Caribbean immigrants are particularly likely to live in single-parent families with children under 18, a living arrangement that complicates family socioeconomic status and child well-being."


Migration Policy Institute, August 11, 2021, 14 pp.
Authors:  Erin Babich & Jeanne Batalova

The Central American-born population in the United States has grown more than tenfold since 1980 and by 24 percent since 2010. The Migration Policy Institute’s article “Central American Immigrants in the United States” by Erin Babich and Jeanne Batalova provides information on the size, geographic distribution, and socioeconomic characteristics of the Central American immigration population in the United States. The report notes how Central American immigration has been driven by various factors, including economic instability, the desire to reunite with family in the U.S., natural disaster, government corruption, gang activity, and high homicide rates. As a result, Central American immigrants in the United States totaled 3.8 million in 2019, making up 8 percent of the U.S. foreign-born population of 44.9 million. Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau and the Department of Homeland Security’s Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, the report details the distribution of Central American immigrants by state and key cities, their English proficiency, their age, education, and employment, as well as their levels of income and poverty. The report also provides information on their immigration pathways and naturalization, the unauthorized immigrant population, health coverage, the diaspora, and remittances to Central America. (Erika Hernandez for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)

Central American Immigrants in the United States,
Migration Policy Institute, August 15, 2019, 16 pp.
Authors: Allison O’Connor et al

A large number of Central American asylum seekers arrived at the U.S.-Mexico border between 2018 and 2019, but Central American immigrants in the U.S. have a long history. This report by the Migration Policy Institute describes this population in terms of geographic distribution, economic impact, educational attainment, public health, immigration status and remittances to home countries. Using data from a variety of sources including U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Census, and Citizenship and Immigration Services, the authors note that the Central American immigrant population has increased greatly over the past 40 years. As of 2017, about 3.5 million first- generation immigrants from Central America lived in the U.S. Approximately one third of these immigrants have become naturalized citizens. Central Americans are also more likely to be Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) or Temporary Protected Status (TPS) recipients than other regional immigrant groups. While Central Americans have lower rates of English proficiency and high school graduation that the U.S.-born or immigrants overall, they also show high rates of workforce participation and are vital employees in construction and maintenance, service and retail and transportation industries. The article links to several interactive maps that show population change over time and geographic concentration, among other things. (Clare Maxwell for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)


The Fight for Representation: The State of Chinese Americans 2022 (Executive Summary)
Committee of 100, Columbia University, April 27, 2023, 7 pp.
Authors: Qin Gao et al

Chinese Americans are one of the fastest growing population groups in the United States, estimated to be 5.5 million or 1.7% of the U.S. population. This report explains the demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, discriminatory experiences, and levels of political and social engagement of this group. The report’s findings are based on a survey of 6,481 respondents from all over the U.S. Sixty percent of Chinese Americans were born outside the U.S. The majority of respondents (80 percent) reported being fluent in English; nearly half spoke both English and Chinese.  Eight in ten Chinese Americans were registered voters, and 91% of them voted in the 2020 presidential election. The researchers also called attention to variations in household income within the group, with a quarter of Chinese Americans being at increased risk of economic hardship or mental illness. The authors suggest inclusive educational practices, funding for English education, and meaningful protocols against anti-Asian hate as solutions to the problems Chinese Americans face.
(The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)


Chinese Immigrants in the United States,
Migration Policy Institute, January 12, 2023, 8 pp.
Authors: Raquel Rosenbloom & Jeanne Batalova

In 2021, the Chinese immigrant population was 2.4 million. That year, their numbers fell for the first time following a long period of growth due to the COVID-19 restrictions. After Mexico and India, Chinese immigrants constitute the third largest share of the U.S. foreign-born population at 5 percent. China is also the largest source of foreign-born students in the U.S., and has the second largest share of H-1B temporary visa recipients. Areas where Chinese immigrants are highly concentrated include California (32 percent) and New York (19 percent). Chinese immigrants tend to have significantly higher levels of education than both the foreign- and U.S.-born populations; 52 percent had at least a bachelor’s degree (compared to 34 percent of the overall immigrant population), 30 percent had a graduate or professional degree (compared to 15 percent overall) and 62 percent who arrived between 2017 and 2021 had a college degree. In the labor force, 60 percent of Chinese immigrants worked in management, business, science or arts (compared to 37 percent of immigrants overall). This translates to higher median household incomes for Chinese immigrants at $78,000 (compared to $70,000 overall).
(The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)


Chinese Immigrants in the United States (Update of 2015 report)
Migration Policy Institute, January 2020, 13 pp.

Authors: Carlos Echeverria-Estrada & Jeanne Batalova
Since 1980, the number of Chinese immigrants in the U.S. has grown seven-fold. Initially arriving as manual laborers in the early 19th century, Chinese immigrants faced extreme levels of discrimination culminating in the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, the first legislation aimed at excluding certain foreigners based on their nationality. Although these restrictions were lifted in 1965, the Chinese communist government barred migration and travel from their country until the late 1970s.  With normalizing relations between the US and China after 1979, the number of Chinese immigrants to the US began to grow significantly. Currently, Chinese immigrants are significantly better educated than the native-born US population, and are more likely to be employed in management positions. Most visas for Chinese immigrants are obtained through employers, while increasing numbers of Chinese students arrive to attend university or with the high-skilled H-1B temporary worker visas. Just over half of Chinese immigrants in the US were naturalized US citizens by 2018, slightly higher than the overall foreign-born population. Chinese immigrants also send a significant amount of remittances back to mainland China. (Julianne P. Weis, Ph.D.)

New American Economy, May 7, 2019, 9 pp.
Chinese immigrants and Chinese Americans have played an integral role in America’s history, from their work on the Transcontinental Railroad in 1869, to their contributions in our society today as doctors, developers and professors.  Not only does this essay review that history, it also examines their current tax contributions, spending power and labor market impact.  The article discusses the virulent nature of anti-Chinese sentiment that peaked with the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882. Nearly a century later, the Immigration and Naturalization Act in 1965 lifted racist restrictions on immigration that made it possible for the Chinese-American population to grow to 5 million today. The article highlights how Chinese Americans have made sizeable contributions to both the 19th century economy, where at one point more than 15,000 Chinese workers were employed on the railroad that linked the two coasts of the U.S., and the present-day economy, with 68 percent of U.S.-born Chinese Americans completing at least a bachelor’s degree and a median household income for all Chinese Americans higher than the national average. (Stephanie DePauw for The ILC’s Public Education Institute) 

Chinese Immigrants in the United States: New Issues and Challenges
Chapter in the book: People of Color in the United States: Contemporary Issues in Education, Work, Communities, Health, and Immigration, 2016, 12 pp.
Author: Xiaochu Hu

Chinese Immigrants in the United States - New Issues and Challenges offers both an historical look at Chinese immigrants in the U.S. and a modern-day portrait using Census, American Community Survey, Department of Homeland Security and Department of State data. Pointing out that 55 percent of Chinese immigrants are female, the author suggests that this skewed ratio may be due to the large number of female immigrant-orphan adoptions and the greater cultural and linguistic adaptability of Chinese women. The author also comments on Chinese immigrants' significant role in the housing market (61 percent of households headed by Chinese immigrants own their own homes, compared to 52 percent for immigrants overall). With homeownership and education being mainstays of Chinese culture, Chinese immigrant families prefer to live in areas with superior school districts and, thus, higher value real estate. Unlike much previous research, this study additionally examines the crucial role of grandparenting in Chinese immigrant families. Migrating grandparents provide invaluable childcare and cultural continuity for their grandchildren. However, grandparents entering on visitors' visas are typically eligible to stay for a maximum of six months, while grandparents with children who are naturalized citizens must decide whether to live in the culturally foreign U.S. or remain in China without their extended family. Those who move to the U.S. must deal with issues of visa status, insurance coverage and assimilation. (Sarah Purdy for The ILC Public Education Institute)

Chinese Immigration in the United States
Migration Policy Institute, January, 2015, 13 pp.
Authors: Kate Hooper and Jeanne Batalova

Chinese immigrants to the U.S. tend to be more highly educated and earn higher wages than both their native-born and foreign-born counterparts. This is one of the findings of "Chinese Immigrants in the United States," a brief by the Migration Policy Institute. The brief weaves history and data from the U.S. Decennial Census, recent American Community Surveys and the Yearbook of Immigration Statistics to paint a picture of Chinese immigration patterns in the U.S.  The authors note that Chinese immigration stalled twice due to, first, the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and, second, China's restrictive emigration policies which weren't relaxed until 1978. The brief finds that Chinese immigrants in the U.S., the third largest immigrant population, are highly skilled and educated workers as they are much more likely to hold bachelor's degrees than the native-born (47% compared with 30% respectively). Chinese immigrants are also more likely to be employed in business, management and science industries and earn higher wages ($57,000 compared to $48,000 and $53,000 for overall immigrant and native-born households, respectively). The data show that Chinese immigrants are concentrated in California and New York and are more likely to become Lawful Permanent Residents through work visa channels than through immediate family relations. (Jamie Cross for The ILC Public Education Institute)


Cuban Immigrants in the United States
Migration Policy Institute, June 11, 2020, 7 pp.
Authors: Brittany Blizzard & Jeanne Batalova

The first wave of Cuban immigration to the United States began in 1959 during the communist revolution. Until 2017, Cuban refugees received unique and favorable treatment when arriving at the U.S. border due to the so-called “wet-foot-dry-foot” policy. Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau and the Department of Homeland Security, this report from the Migration Policy Institute finds that Cubans since 1970 have traditionally been among the 10 largest immigrant groups in the U.S.  In 2018, they were the seventh largest immigrant group with 1.4 million people. The majority (77 percent) of Cuban immigrants are concentrated in the Miami metropolitan area. Cuban immigrants are significantly less likely to be proficient in English and are generally much older than the overall foreign-born population. Data suggests that Cuban immigrants also have lower levels of educational attainment and lower levels of labor force participation than other immigrant groups. Many Cubans in the labor force are in service, sales, construction, production and transportation occupations. Despite having a lower average income than other immigrant groups and U.S.-born population, Cuban immigrants have a high naturalization rate. (Jaisang Sun for the Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)

Cuban Migration: A Postrevolution Exodus Ebbs and Flows
Migration Policy Institute, July 6, 2017, 12 pp.
Author: Jorge Duany

This article examines the history of Cuban emigration and the political context within which it has occurred. While there was Cuban migration to the U.S. before the Cuban Revolution of 1959, the scale of that migration increased greatly afterwards. The author divides migration since 1959 into five phases and notes that the socioeconomic characteristics of migrants changes with each new phase. The first wave from 1959 and 1962 consisted largely of the upper and middle classes; later, Cuban migrants increasingly resembled labor migrants coming from other countries. The Cuban Adjustment Act, enacted in 1966, acted as a magnet-offering any Cuban admitted or paroled into the U.S. immediate refugee-like status and legal permanent residence after one year. As relations between the U.S. and Cuba began to thaw toward the end of the Obama administration, Cubans feared an end to favorable treatment, and there was another spike in migration. On January 12, 2017, the Obama administration announced that Cubans arriving in the U.S. would no longer automatically be admitted or paroled, cutting their access to the special treatment provided by the Cuban Adjustment Act. Subsequently, Cuban migration dropped dramatically. Unless the Trump administration reverses its predecessor's policies, Cuban migrants will no longer be a significant percentage of the U.S. migrant stream (Maurice Belanger, Maurice Belanger Associates).


Immigrants from the Dominican Republic in the United States,
Migration Policy Institute, April 15, 2021, 9 pp.
Authors: Erin Babich & Jeanne Batalova

Immigrants from the Dominican Republic make up the fourth largest Hispanic immigrant group in the U.S., their numbers having increased by 33 percent since 2010. This article from the Migration Policy Institute uses data from the U.S. Census, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and other sources to give an overview of Dominican immigrants in the U.S. including their geographic distribution, income, education and immigration pathways. The report finds that Dominican immigrants actively utilize family ties to enter the U.S. (99 percent of Dominican immigrants arrive through family sponsorship compared to 69 percent of immigrants overall). They are also more likely than other immigrant groups to be lawful permanent residents and to naturalize. Dominican immigrants tend to settle in traditional destination areas, primarily in New York (45 percent), New Jersey (16 percent), Florida (12 percent) and Massachusetts (eight percent). The majority of Dominican immigrants are between the ages of 18 to 64 and they are overrepresented in the service, production, transportation and material moving occupations. While they have a significantly lower median household income and educational attainment than both the overall foreign-born and the U.S.-born populations, data shows that global remittances to the Dominican Republic have more than doubled in the past decade reaching nearly $8 billion in 2020. (Jaisang Sun for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)


Ecuador:  From Mass Emigration to Return Migration?
Migration Policy Institute, November 24, 2014, 17 pp.
Author: Brad D. Jokisch

A professor of geography at Ohio University with specialization in the Ecuadorian Andes, Brad D. Jokish has produced this short primer on migration to and from Ecuador over the last 30 years. During this period, some 10 to 15 percent of Ecuador's population has moved overseas, primarily to Spain, the United States, and Italy. The majority (58 percent) of Ecuadorians in the U.S. reside in the New York-New Jersey metro area. Ecuadorians also constituted the largest immigrant group in Spain for a few years during the last decade. While Ecuadorians were going abroad, other groups -- mainly displaced Colombians and U.S. retirees -- were entering Ecuador, causing a spike in the country's foreign-born population. The paper also looks at the phenomenon of return migration, especially the response of Ecuadorians to incentives offered by the Spanish government to return home after the global economic downturn of 2008. Jokisch also examines the role of remittances, which reached a peak of 6 percent of Ecuadorian GDP in 2006.


European Immigrants in the United States,
Migration Policy Institute, August 1, 2018, 12 pp,.
Authors:  Elijah Alperin & Jeanne Batalova

Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, the Department of Homeland Security, and the World Bank, this report provides information on the European population in the U.S., focusing on its size, major countries of origin, geographic distribution in the U.S., and socioeconomic characteristics. Eastern Europeans constituted 44 percent of the entire European-born population.  In 2016, the top five countries of origin were the United Kingdom, Germany, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine.  The report features an interactive map allowing one to track population changes by country over time. In the 2012-16 period, 45 percent of European immigrants lived in one of four states:  New York (15 percent), California (14 percent), and Florida and Illinois (8 percent each). European immigrants are much more likely to be proficient in English than the general foreign-born population, but with significant variations depending on countries of origin, e.g. eastern Europeans lag behind other Europeans in this respect. The European population is significantly older than the general foreign-born and U.S.-born population but also better educated (42 percent had a bachelor’s degree or better compared to 32 percent of the U.S.-born population). Using the term “diaspora” to describe the population of people of either European birth or ancestry, the report finds that 41 percent of the 323 million people living in the U.S. are European. The four largest “diaspora groups” are Germany (14.0 percent), Ireland (11.6 percent), United Kingdom (9.8 percent), and Italy (5.2 percent).

Contemporary First-Generation European-Americans: the Unbearable "Whiteness" of Being
Charlotte School of Law, February, 2013 (Forthcoming in Tulane Law Review), 62 pp.
Author: Dagmar Rita Myslinska
This article examines the applicability of existing anti-discrimination statutes to the challenges faced by contemporary European immigrants. In her analysis, the author discusses how assumptions about an all-pervasive white privilege serve to mask the burdens that "foreignness" places on all immigrants, no matter what their "racial" background. The author readily acknowledges that the 5 million European immigrants in the United States are generally well integrated into American life, as measured by language proficiency, socioeconomic attainment, political participation, and residential mobility. Nonetheless, these immigrants are not always perceived as "real" Americans and face prejudice and discrimination, especially if their accents are too pronounced or their cultural norms deviate from the mainstream. "They oscillate between being too foreign, and not foreign enough" to receive the legal protections afforded to non-white immigrants. They also may feel powerless to alter their situation, as they lack strength in numbers and may blame themselves for not benefitting sufficiently from their status as "white" immigrants. By raising these issues, the author hopes "to more closely circumscribe the concept of white privilege, prompting Caucasians who do not fully partake of it to recognize shared areas of concern, and to better understand the experiences of other groups who are not fully encompassed by it." The author sprinkles the article with vignettes drawn from her own experiences as a Polish immigrant to the U.S.


Migration Policy Institute, August 8, 2023, 7 pp.
Authors: Caitlin Davis & Jeanne Batalova

This report from the Migration Policy Institute examines the robust growth of the Filipino immigrant population in the United States, stemming in part from the strong political and economic ties that developed after the U.S. annexation of the Philippines in 1898. In 2021, close to 2 million Filipino immigrants resided in the U.S., comprising over 4% of the total immigrant population and ranking as the fourth largest immigrant group. Family reunification has been the primary path to lawful permanent resident (LPR) status, although more than one-quarter obtained green cards through employment preferences in FY 2021. Filipino immigrants often excel in English proficiency and have a higher likelihood of naturalization than most other immigrant groups. They also tend to be well-educated, with higher incomes and health insurance coverage. The Filipino immigrant population has seen substantial growth, particularly in the 1980s and 1990s, though increasing at a slower pace since 2010. Geographically, they are concentrated in California, Hawaii, Texas, Illinois, Nevada, and New York. The report also highlights their prominence in Los Angeles, San Francisco, and New York. Covering language skills, age, education, employment, income, immigration pathways, naturalization, unauthorized immigration, health insurance, diaspora, and remittances, this report offers a comprehensive overview of the Filipino immigrant community in the United States. (The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)

Migration Policy Institute, July 12, 2017, 13 pp.
Author: Maruja M.B. Asis
The Philippines has a significant culture of migration and is a major labor exporter worldwide. Ten million Filipinos, around 10 percent of the population, are working abroad, primarily in the Middle East and Asia. Thanks to an improved economy in recent years, the Philippines is now developing policies for returning overseas Filipino workers (OFWs).  This study examines the evolving labor policies of the last few decades and shows how the country is incorporating migration into its long-term development planning. This report begins with an overview of Filipino migration, both permanent and temporary, going back to 1898 and covering countries of settlement and types of jobs filled by Filipinos.  In the 1970s, the Philippines created an overseas employment program and developed policies to protect OFWs living abroad from exploitation. While mindful of the importance of remittances, the government, however, paid little attention to the potential of OFWs to bring their skills and experience back to the Philippines for development purposes. Migration was never included in national and regional development plans. In 2014, the National Economic Development Authority, the government agency involved in development planning, created a subcommittee to improve coordination between migration-related agencies and promote development related to migration. The new Philippine Development Plan gives attention to OFWs to strengthen their engagement in governance and ensure smooth reintegration. The Philippines is now a global leader in discussions on migration and development. The next steps for the country may include setting up migrant resource centers in local communities and integrating migration in local development plans (The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute).

Filipino Immigrants in the United States (Update of earlier report)
Migration Policy Institute, March 14, 2018, 13 pp.
Authors:  Jie Zong & Jeanne Batalova
Numbering more than 1.9 million, Filipinos are the fourth largest foreign-born group in the U.S. Utilizing data from the US Census Bureau's 2016 American Community Survey and other federal data sources, the Migration Policy Institute provides this update to its profile of Filipino Immigrants in the United States. The profile examines the geographic distribution of Filipinos by state and key cities, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, categories of admission to the U.S., and remittance data. Filipinos now constitute four percent of the total foreign-born population with nearly half (44 percent) living in California. Four counties (Los Angeles and San Diego in California, Honolulu in Hawaii, and Clark in Nevada) account for 26 percent of all Filipinos. Filipinos are more likely than other immigrants to have strong English skills, and they have college completion rates higher than both other immigrants and the U.S.-born population. Filipinos also tend to be older than immigrants in general. In 2016, the Filipino media age was 50 years, compared to 44 years for all immigrants and 36 years for native-born Americans.


Addressing the Next Displacement Crisis in the Making in the Americas,
Migration Policy Institute, October 2023, 8 pp.
Author: Valerie Lacarte

This essay discusses the next potential displacement crisis in the Americas, focusing on the situation of Haitian migrants. Since the devastating earthquake in 2010, hundreds of thousands of Haitians have left their country due to political and economic instability, worsening gang violence, and the collapse of basic governmental functions. The article compares the treatment of Haitian migrants with that of Venezuelan migrants, who have experienced a more coordinated regional strategy and a warmer welcome in the Americas. The Dominican Republic, in particular, has engaged in large-scale deportations of Haitians, contributing to further destabilization in Haiti. The article also highlights the challenges faced by Haitian migrants in other countries, such as limited mobility within CARICOM – a 15-member Caribbean intergovernmental organization that is seeking to implement a free mobility policy except for Haitians -- and haphazard responses in South America. It mentions the efforts of countries like Colombia and regional initiatives like the Quito Process in addressing the Venezuelan displacement crisis and suggests the need for a similar regional response for displaced Haitians. The article proposes the creation of a Regional Interagency Coordination Platform for Haitian migrants, similar to the one for Venezuelan migrants, to examine policies like regularization and provide technical assistance and financial resources. It emphasizes the importance of solidarity and shared responsibility in addressing the ongoing displacement crisis in Haiti.

Haitian Immigrants in the United States,
Migration Policy Institute (MPI), Spotlight, May 29, 2014, 10 pp.
Authors: Chiamaka Nwosu & Jeanne Batalova

The end of the Duvalier dictatorship, according to this MPI information brief, opened a flow of Haitian immigrants to the U.S., resulting in a threefold increase in the Haitian population from 1990-2012. Moreover, following the 2010 earthquake, Haitians already in the U.S. gained Temporary Protected Status (TPS) until 2016, which offers relief from deportation and gives work authorization to 58,000 qualifying Haitians. The fourth largest Caribbean migrant group, Haitians are concentrated in the states of Florida, New York, New Jersey, and Massachusetts. With regard to education levels, 18 percent of Haitian immigrants had a B.A. or higher in 2012, which is significantly lower than the 28 percent of the total U.S. foreign-born population with college degrees. Limited English Proficiency (LEP) is higher for Haitian Immigrants (54 percent) compared to the total immigrant population (50 percent). Vocationally, over 40 percent of Haitian adults were employed in service occupations, compared to 25 percent of all immigrant adults. At 21 percent, there is a similar likelihood of Haitians experiencing poverty as other immigrant groups. Of the 600,000+ Haitian immigrants in the U.S., 50 percent were naturalized citizens, which is slightly higher than the share for all immigrants. Most Haitians were relatives of citizens or other family sponsored immigrants rather than gaining status through employment or lottery-based means. Haitian immigrants were as likely to be insured as other immigrants, but disproportionately relied on public health care. The total remittances formally sent to Haiti increased tenfold from the 1980's to 2012 at $1.6 billion, which is 21 percent of the country's GDP. (Colin Liebtag, Rutgers Graduate School of Social Work)


Extending Temporary Protected Status for Honduras: Country Conditions and U.S. Legal Requirements,
Center for Latin American & Latino Studies (American University) and others, November, 2017, 33 pp.
Authors:  Jayesh Rathod et al

Following Hurricane Mitch in 1998, which displaced thousands of people and severely damaged physical infrastructure and socio-economic stability in Honduras and Nicaragua, the U.S. Congress granted Temporary Protected Status (TPS) to Hondurans and Nicaraguans in the U.S. TPS provides relief to foreign nationals who are unable to return to their home countries due to natural disaster, economic instability or violence.  This report details the current conditions in Honduras. Owing to decades of instability due to natural disaster, housing insecurity, crime and economic instability, the authors argue that TPS should be preserved for Honduran nationals living in the U.S. According to Federal Register notices, the Department of Homeland Security has consistently cited those issues as reasons to extend TPS for Hondurans. The Department of Homeland Security may issue extensions of six to 18 months while conditions that prevent foreign nationals from returning to their home countries persist. The report recommends that TPS should be extended past the January 2018 deadline for renewal as there has been no substantial improvement in conditions and because a large percentage of Hondurans still rely on remittances from Hondurans working in the U.S. In cases of TPS designation because of natural disasters, the report also recommends collaborating with the designated country to develop benchmarks of improvement to better assess a country's ability to handle returning nationals. (Subsequent to publication of this report, the Department of Homeland Security announced a new, six-month extension of TPS for Hondurans to July 5, 2018) (Mia Fasano for the Immigrant Learning Center's Public Education Institute)

Honduras: The Perils of Remittance Dependence and Clandestine Migration,
Migration Policy Institute, April, 2013, 8 pp.
Author: Daniel Reichman
Adapted from the author's book entitled the Broken Village, this report discusses the political and economic transformation of Honduras since 1980, with particular attention to how this transformation has shaped emigration trends to the U.S. Spared the civil wars and turmoil the rocked its neighbors, Honduras actually served as a place of refuge for Salvadorans, Nicaraguans, and Guatemalans during the eighties. Relatively few Hondurans made their way to the United States during this period; hence, Hondurans never established a major beachhead in the United States and thus could not benefit from the 1986 amnesty and the ability to petition for relatives back home. The "neoliberal" economic transformation of the Honduran economy in the nineties spurred an exodus from the countryside to Honduran cities and to the United States, a trend that was accelerated by the devastation caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998. In 2011, the Department of Homeland Security estimated that roughly 77 percent of Honduran-born immigrants in the U.S. were unauthorized -- the largest percentage among Central American immigrant groups. According to the author, "the fact that Honduran-born immigrants are disproportionately unauthorized severely constrains their ability to participate fully in social, cultural, and economic life in the United States."


Migration Policy Institute, December 7, 2022, 12 pp.
Authors: Ari Hoffman & Jeanne Batalova

Since the initial arrival of Asian Indian immigrants on the West Coast in the nineteenth century, their number in the U.S. has reached 2.7 million, accounting for approximately six percent of the total foreign-born population in 2021. Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, the Department of Homeland Security’s Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, and the World Bank, this Migration Policy Institute article finds that the U.S. is a major destination country for many Indian immigrants -- second only to the United Arab Emirates. Indian immigrants in the U.S. are highly educated; many work in management positions, and have higher incomes than both the total foreign- and U.S.- born populations. Many Indian immigrants use employment-based channels to obtain legal permanent residence, but they are less likely to naturalize compared to other immigrant groups. Data from 2015-2019 show that Indian immigrants settle in major metropolitan areas across the U.S., including New York, Chicago, San Francisco, San Jose and Dallas. They are also highly concentrated in California (20 percent), followed by Texas (11 percent) and New Jersey (10 percent).
(The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)

Sikhs in America: A History of Hate
Pro Publica, August 4, 2017, 32 pp.
Author: A.C. Thompson
As monotheistic followers of a 15th century religion from South Asia, Sikh men refrain from shaving and wear turbans. In America, they are often victims of violence or abuse by those who confuse them for Muslims. Although there are an estimated 500,000 Sikhs currently living in the United States, they have long been the victims of xenophobia and anti-immigrant sentiment. According to “Sikhs in America: A History of Hate,” the Sikh community is facing an increase in unprovoked attacks against its members. Through a series of profiles, the author tries to reveal the scope and brutality of these attacks. He also relates the story of Wade Page, an American Nazi who attacked a Wisconsin Sikh temple in 2012, resulting in the deaths of seven people. There are few reliable statistics on the number of hate crimes committed against Sikhs each year because police often do not categorize attacks against the Sikh community as hate crimes. However, a majority of attacks have occurred in the years following the September 11th terror attacks. The article stresses that steps must be taken to improve police reporting of hate crimes against Sikhs and that a national database should be developed to document these attacks (Jonathan Eizyk for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute).


Immigrants from Iran in  the United States,
Migration Policy Institute, July 15, 2021, 8 pp.
Authors:  Tianjian Lai & Jeanne Batalova

Using a variety of data sources, this Spotlight provides information on the Iranian immigrant population in the United States, focusing on its size, geographic distribution, and socioeconomic characteristics. There were 385,000 Iranian immigrants living in the U.S. in 2019. During the 2015-19 period, 54 percent of Iranian immigrants lived in California, with 29 percent in Los Angeles County alone. The next three states with the largest Iranian immigrant populations were Texas (8 percent), New York (5 percent), and Virginia (4 percent). Iranian immigrants have much higher educational attainment relative to the U.S.-born and overall immigrant populations. In 2019, 59 percent of Iranians ages 25 or older reported having a bachelor’s degree or higher, compared to 33 percent of U.S.-born and immigrant adults. The majority of Iranian immigrant workers were in management, business, science, and arts occupations (62 percent), a much higher proportion than the U.S. born (41 percent) and all immigrants (35 percent). Iranian immigrants, as a group, are older than both the total foreign-born and U.S.-born populations – the result of large numbers arriving subsequent to the Iranian revolution of 1979. The median age for Iranians was 55 years, compared to 46 years for the overall foreign-born population and 37 years for the native born. According to mid-2019 estimates from the United Nations Population Division, the United States is the most popular destination for Iranians living abroad. Canada is home to the next largest Iranian population (164,000), followed by Germany (127,000), the United Kingdom (90,000), and Turkey (83,000).



Korean Immigrants in the United States,
Migration Policy Institute, April 14, 2022, 12 pp.
Authors: Cecilia Esterline & Jeanne Batalova

Despite having the tenth largest immigrant population in the United States, the number of immigrants from the Korean Peninsula has declined in the past decade. From 2010-2019, the Korean-born immigrant population fell by 61,000 while the overall immigrant population in the US increased by 12 percent in the same period. This article begins by identifying factors that led to the growth of Korean immigration in the US, highlighting the significance of Korean War Brides, the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, and the transition from predominantly low-skilled Korean workers to educated high-earners. The article then draws on data from the US Census Bureau, the Department of Homeland Security, and the World Bank to provide a comprehensive analysis of the size, geographic distribution, and socioeconomic characteristics of the Korean immigrant population in the US, including their distribution by state and key cities, English proficiency, age, education, employment, income, immigration pathways, health coverage, and data on remittances. (Flora Meng for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute) 
Korean Immigrants in the United States

Migration Policy Institute, April 10, 2019, 13 pp.
Authors:  Allison O’Connor & Jeanne Batalova

After the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965 removed restrictions on Asian immigration to the U.S., the Korean immigrant population, almost entirely from South Korea, grew from 11,000 in 1960 to 1.1 million immigrants in 2010. In this updated profile, the Migration Policy Institute reports on the size, geographic distribution and socioeconomic characteristics of the Korean immigrant population. Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau (2013-17 American Community Survey), the Department of Homeland Security 2017 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, World Bank annual remittance data, and the United Nations Population Division, the report points out that the Korean immigrant population had decreased slightly between 2010 and 2017, largely because improved political and economic conditions in South Korea have decreased incentives to migrate. However, despite this decrease, remittances have continued to grow, reaching $6.9 billion in 2018. In 2017, Korean immigrants represented 2.4 percent of the 44.5 million immigrants in the U.S. and are generally highly educated and of high socioeconomic standing. While Korean immigrants are more likely to hold a bachelor’s or advanced degree, they have lower workforce participation rates and are more likely to have limited English proficiency than the overall immigrant population. In the 2013-17 period, 40 percent of Korean immigrants were concentrated in the greater metropolitan areas of Los Angeles, New York and Washington, DC.


US Immigration from Latin America in Historical Perspective,
Harvard Kennedy School, November 2022, 40 pp.
Authors: Gordon H. Hanson et al

This paper is an attempt to put Latin American and Caribbean immigration in a broader historical, social, and economic context. Just as earlier waves of immigrants, such as the Irish and Germans in the 19th century, and southern and eastern Europeans in the early 20th century, entered in waves that eventually subsided, the same may be happening to the Latin American and Caribbean population. According to the authors, “demographic pressures for migration have slackened across Latin America… Much of the region appears less subject to the volatile combustibility of the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, when the Latin American migration wave built its momentum.” This slowing of migration by less educated Latinos may also have negative consequences for some labor-intensive U.S. industries. Latin American immigrants are a major presence in agriculture, construction, manufacturing, and personal services. Difficulties in hiring native-born workers and obtaining visas for foreign-born workers may cause US labor costs to rise, which could induce firms to accelerate automation and the offshoring of production. Given lower birth rates around the world and higher education levels, meeting the workforce needs of the American economy could be a growing challenge, which may or may not be solved through future adjustments in American immigration policy.

The New Latinx “Repatriation”? Removals, Criminal Justice, and the Efforts to Remove Latinx people from the United States
UC Davis Legal Studies Research Paper, February 22, 2019, 39 pp.
Author: Kevin R. Johnson

Reflecting on earlier episodes of Mexican “repatriation” from the United States, specifically the removal of approximately one million Mexicans during the Great Depression and hundreds of thousands during “Operation Wetback” in the fifties, the author of this essay sees Trump administration efforts to rid the country of Hispanic immigrants as the latest flare-up of a racist policy which long roots in American history. The article contends that most of the measures employed by the administration are disproportionately targeting Latinx noncitizens (More than 92 percent of noncitizens removed in FY 2018 were from Mexico and the Northern Triangle countries) and represent the equivalent of a new repatriation campaign, with “self-deportation” as a favored strategy and with little concern for any legal residents or citizens swept up in the process.  Among the measures discussed in the article are: the rescission of DACA; ending Temporary Protected Status for Salvadorans, Hondurans, and Nicaraguans; indiscriminate deportation policies, including the revival of worksite enforcement; efforts to punish so-called “sanctuary cities;” family separation policies and other efforts to deter Central American asylum seekers, and efforts to restrict legal immigration. Although many of these policies are ostensibly “color-blind,” their operation in practice has targeted Latinx communities with “devastating impacts.” The author concludes “the United States is being taken back to a time before the Immigration Act of 1965…when immigration of people of color from the developing world was severely restricted through discriminatory quotas.”

Hispanic Identity Fades Across Generations as Immigrant Connections Fall Away,
Pew Research Center, December 20, 2017, 33 pp
Authors: Mark Hugo Lopez, et al
While there are 42.7 million adults in the United States with Hispanic ancestry, 11 percent do not identify as Hispanic. This number is expected to increase due to a long-standing high intermarriage rate and a decade of decreasing immigration from Latin America. In the report Hispanic Identity Fades Across Generations as Immigrant Connections Fall, the authors examine the experiences and self-identity of U.S. adults with Hispanic heritage. Their results are based on findings from two Pew Research Center national surveys of two mutually exclusive groups: 1,500 self-identified Hispanic adults, and 401 adults who have Hispanic, Latino or Spanish ancestry but who do not identify as Hispanic. Their findings suggest that later generations (particularly the third and fourth) have different experiences than earlier generations: they are less exposed to Hispanic cultural celebrations, less encouraged to speak Spanish, face less discrimination, have fewer Hispanic peers and are less likely to live in a Hispanic neighborhood. Those who do not identify as Hispanic are more likely to identify as white, and 27 percent said "their Hispanic ancestry is too far back or their background is mixed." If self-identity as Hispanic decreases over time, then current growth projections for the self-identified Hispanic population may have to be altered and "the nation's own sense of its diversity could change"(Sakura Tomizawa for The Immigrant Learning Center's Public Education Institute).

The Complex and Varied Households of Low-Income Hispanic Children,
National Research Center on Hispanic Children & Families, January, 2015, 10 pp.,
Authors:  Kimberly Turner, Lina Guzman, Elizabeth Wildsmith, & Mindy Scott

The presence of an immigrant parent in the household seems to make an important difference in this study of Hispanic children and families. Using a public use microdata sample (PUMS) from the 2012 American Community Survey, the researchers compare low-income Hispanic families with comparable white and black families. Thirty-six (36) percent of low-income Hispanic children with at least one foreign-born parent live in married, two parent households– those made up of only married parents and children. The rates for comparable white and black families are 26 percent and 8 percent, and for Hispanic children with only US-born parents, only 11 percent.  According to the authors, children with at least one foreign-born parent have a “notable advantage… given the benefits of stable, two parent families such as relative economic well-being and parents spending more time with children.”  On the other hand, Hispanic children with at least one foreign-born parent also live in more crowded housing.  Household size is greater with more sharing of bedrooms.  “Crowded housing,” according to the authors, “is associated with a host of adverse outcomes for children, such as sleep deprivation, behavioral problems, and less responsive parenting.”  Yet overcrowding may also benefit children as “additional adults in the household may contribute resources, if these adults work or help provide childcare or other vital assistance to children and other family members.” As the number of Hispanic households with US-born parents increases and those with foreign-born parents decreases, the factors driving differences between these households should be of concern to policymakers. This study does not attempt to disaggregate Hispanic households by parental country of origin.

Hispanics in the United States: Not Only Mexicans,
US2010 Project, Brown University, March 2013, 16 pp.
Authors: John R. Logan & Richard N. Turner
This paper traces the demographic, economic, and social trajectory of the different Hispanic groups in the U.S. from 1990 to 2010. The authors call attention to the diversity of the Hispanic population, noting that groups like the Hondurans, Guatemalans and other "new Latino" groups have experienced remarkable growth rates during this period. Each group has its own educational and skill profile, shaping its ability to thrive in the U.S. labor market. On the high end of the income spectrum are the Argentinians and Venezuelans; on the low end are the Guatemalans and Hondurans. According to the authors, there is not a single Hispanic experience in America, but rather "many Hispanic situations..." Different groups are also concentrated in different regions of the country, with for example, the Dominicans in New York, Mexicans in Chicago, and Cubans in Miami. The paper also finds important intra-Hispanic differences in residential segregation from non-Hispanic whites. While "Mexican segregation is persistent...other groups are experiencing much more integration with whites...a phenomenon that has been submerged by analyses of Hispanics as a single large category..."

Foundation Funding and Latino Community Priorities: Gaps and Opportunities,
Hispanics in Philanthropy (HIP), April, 2012, 20 pp.
This report is the second in a series focusing on foundation funding of Latino organizations and Latino community needs. The first report, published jointly with the Foundation Center, documented trends in foundation funding during the first decade of the century. It found that funding remained generally flat during a period of high Latino growth, with only 1.3 percent of all foundation funding in 2009 directed to identifiable Latino organizations and activities. This second report summarizes findings from two surveys conducted in 2011 seeking to understand the apparent low level of foundation investment in Latino organizations and activities. Data was collected from 60 funders and 155 nonprofits. Both funders and grantees generally agree on programming priorities; education, economic development, and immigration top the list. However, grantmaking activity was "not consistent with their (funders') understanding of what is important in Latino communities." The research team from Milano the New School for International Affairs speculates that the lack of Latino representation at the senior management level may account for this discrepancy, along with the "narrow focus" of many foundations. In their survey responses, grantees were concerned about the lack of funder support for community organizing, administrative functions, and capacity-building. The report concludes with a number of recommendations both for funders and for HIP as an intermediary organization. Among other things, the authors urge funders to provide capacity-building and core support for "small, high-impact Latino nonprofit organizations" and encourage HIP to serve as a conduit to these organizations by continuing its national funders' collaborative.


LGBT Adult Immigrants in the United States,
The Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law, March, 2013, 11 pp.
Author: Gary J. Gates

This report profiles immigrants, both documented and undocumented, who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT). The author estimates that there are 267,000 self-identified LGBT undocumented and 637,000 self-identified LGBT documented immigrants living the United States. Unlike the native-born LGBT population in the U.S. which is majority female (53 percent), approximately two-thirds of undocumented and 57 percent of documented LGBT immigrants are male. Hispanics make up the majority of undocumented LGBT adults at 71 percent, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders at 15 percent. However, among the documented population, the percentage of Asians and Pacific Islanders (35 percent) exceeds that of Hispanics (30 percent). There are 24,700 same-sex bi-national couples (one US citizen and one non-citizen) and 11,700 same-sex couples with two non-citizens. Same-sex couples with two non-citizens are more likely to raise children under age 18 at 58 percent compared to same-sex bi-national couples at 25 percent. In terms of employment, there is no significant difference between same-sex and different-sex men. On the other hand, naturalized women (98 percent) and non-citizen women (90 percent) in same-sex couples report higher employment than women in different-sex couples (95 percent and 87 percent respectively). The report includes a methodology section explaining the procedures used in developing these estimates. (Lorin Mordecai)

Migration Policy Institute, October 13, 2022, 12 pp.

Authors: Raquel Rosenbloom & Jeanne Batalova

This report provides an in-depth analysis of Mexican immigrants in the United States -- the largest group of immigrants for many years, accounting for about 24 percent of the foreign-born population in 2021. However, their numbers have been decreasing over the past decade, with about 10.7 million Mexican-born individuals living in the U.S. in 2021. Despite this decline, Mexicans have recently again become the largest new immigrant group again, surpassing arrivals from China and India. Mexicans also receive the most nonimmigrant visas and lawful permanent residence (green cards) in the U.S. compared to other countries. They are also the largest group of unauthorized immigrants, with about 48 percent of the total unauthorized immigrant population in 2019. Mexican immigrants are concentrated in states like California and Texas, with significant populations in cities like Los Angeles, Chicago, Dallas, and Houston. Mexican immigrants have lower levels of educational attainment and household incomes compared to the overall foreign- and U.S.-born populations. They are more likely to be in the labor force and work in service, construction, and transportation occupations. About 35 percent of Mexican immigrants are naturalized U.S. citizens, much lower than the 53 percent of the total foreign-born who are citizens. Health insurance coverage among Mexican immigrants is lower than the overall foreign-born and U.S.-born populations. The Mexican diaspora in the U.S. is the second largest after the German-origin diaspora, with approximately 38.7 million residents of Mexican ancestry. Remittances sent to Mexico from the U.S. totaled over $54.1 billion in 2021, representing about 4 percent of Mexico's GDP.

A Revolving Door No More? A Statistical Profile of Mexican Adults Repatriated from the United States,
Migration Policy Institute, May 2017, 23 pp.
Authors: Ryan Schultheis & Ariel G. Ruiz Soto
Return migration to the United States by deportees from Mexico has slowed down significantly in the past decade. The Migration Policy Institute report, A Revolving Door No More? A Statistical Profile of Mexican Adults Repatriated from the United States, gives a statistical and demographic profile of Mexican adults returned by the United States government between 2005 and 2015 using data collected by the Mexican Interior Ministry. During that time, there was an 80 percent drop in Mexican adults seeking re-entry after being repatriated from the United States: 471,000 in 2005 to 95,000 in 2015. According to the Mexican Northern Border Survey, repatriated Mexicans intending to return to the U.S. declined from 95 percent to 49 percent between 2005 and 2015. The percentage of those intending to stay in Mexico rose from five to 47 percent, and many of those intending to stay in Mexico are leaving their children behind in the U.S. The report offers several factors that have contributed to this trend: border crossing has become more difficult, the U.S. economy has weakened and the criminalizing of unauthorized entries by the U.S. have all become effective deterrents. As new U.S. immigration policy may lead to greater border enforcement and increased removal of Mexican immigrants, it will be important for Mexico to strengthen services that encourage the social and economic reintegration of returning Mexican adults to promote future economic growth for the country. (The ILC Public Education Institute)

Unauthorized Mexican Migration and the Socioeconomic Integration of Mexican Americans,
Russell Sage Foundation, 2013, 43 pp
Authors: Frank D. Bean, Susan K. Brown, Mark A. Leach, James D. Bachmeier, & Jennifer Van Hook

This essay argues that, without a path to citizenship for undocumented Mexican immigrants, integration into American society will suffer for generations to come. The authors look at demographic trends, integration indicators such as education and socioeconomic status and immigration policy to find out "How well are undocumented Mexican immigrants and their children and grandchildren faring in the United States?" Such a question is pertinent given that "the country has become more Mexican" as a result of America's declining low-skilled native population and despite policy efforts to the contrary. The authors note, however, that there has been a concomitant increase in the economic and social marginality of undocumented Mexican immigrants. Full societal membership is thwarted by policies that restrict their movement, access to services, upward mobility and legalization. As the authors point out, "this forces the immigrants and their children to live in the shadows (which) matters for educational outcomes in the second and third generations" since children of undocumented parents average fewer years in school, suggesting they are likely to lack a high school diploma, adequate wages and, thus, ways to rid themselves of the stigma of being undocumented Mexican Americans. Indeed, "legal status alone exerts its own positive force on second and third generation education" and, without it, will perpetuate the expanding underclass of marginalized Mexican Americans. (Denzel Mohammed)

Mexican Migration to the United States: Underlying Economic Factors and Possible Scenarios for Future Flows,
Wilson Center and Migration Policy Institute, April, 2013, 22 pp.
Authors: Daniel Chiquiar & Alejandrina Salcedo
By analyzing migratory trends from Mexico to the U.S. during three periods: the 1990s, 2000 to 2007, and 2007 to 2011, the authors of this report attempt to predict future flows of Mexican immigrants. The report looks at the "intensity" (or the proportion) of Mexican immigrants within specific industries in the United States and tries to relate growth patterns within these industries to future demand for Mexican workers. The authors also note that the skill levels of Mexican workers, both in Mexico and in the migratory stream, are increasing, so that one cannot generalize on the basis of the profile of earlier cohorts of Mexican workers. Recognizing that there are a variety of "shocks," such as an economic crisis in Mexico or stricter border enforcement, that could either raise or lower these estimates, the authors nonetheless predict an average "baseline" net annual inflow of 258,000 during the 2011 to 2017 period, a figure much lower than the 466,000 per year who arrived in the 1990s, but similar to the 277,000 who arrived from 2000 to 2007, before the onset of the Great Recession.

In the Shadow of the Wall: Family Separation, Immigration Enforcement and Security: Preliminary Data from the Migrant Border Crossing Study,"
Center for Latin American Studies, University of Arizona, March, 2013, 39 pp.
This report summarizes the findings of a team of researchers who surveyed and interviewed 1,113 Mexican nationals who were deported to six cities in Mexico from 2010 to 2012. All had crossed into the U.S sometime after September 11, 2001 and were interviewed during the month after their deportation. The researchers found a "strikingly different portrait of deportees" than the usual one of single men with no real ties to the U.S. Instead, although 82 percent were men, roughly half had at least one U.S. citizen family member, and about 25 percent had a U.S.-citizen child. Typically, respondents had three lifetime crossing attempts and one previous apprehension. Three-quarters relied on a "coyote" to shepherd them across the border, paying an average of $2,500 per trip. The report details the hazards and violence associated with border crossings, with especially harsh consequences for women. Efforts of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection to prevent and deport illegal border crossers come in for sharp criticism in the report. According to the authors, most interviewees had no realistic legal channels to immigrate to the U.S. The authors of the study, funded by the Ford Foundation, call for a rethinking of what border security should mean in a region "connected by family" and economic need.


Middle Eastern and North African Immigrants in the United States

Migration Policy Institute, January 23, 2022, 9 pp.
Authors: Laura Harjanto & Jeanne Batalova

Fluctuations in U.S. immigration policy and global developments have impacted the immigration patterns of Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) immigrants since at least the 1920s, becoming particularly turbulent in the decades since the 9/11 terror attacks in 2001. These trends and more are traced in “Middle Eastern and North African Immigrants in the United States,” an article by Laura Harjanto and Jeanne Batalova for the Migration Policy Institute. The article finds that, historically, there have been three significant waves of MENA immigration to America: one in the late 1800s, which largely consisted of Arab Christians fleeing insecurity, conscription and persecution in Ottoman Syria; another beginning in 1948, which was driven by multiple regional political instabilities; and finally one beginning in 1965, which was spurred on by the 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act that ended the nationality-based quota system. As of 2019, the top MENA immigrant-sending countries were Iraq (20.7 percent of MENA immigrants), Egypt (17.1 percent) and Lebanon (10.0 percent), and the top MENA immigrant-receiving U.S. states were California (18 percent), Michigan (10 percent) and New York (9 percent). MENA immigrants are disproportionately likely to be proficient in English (61 percent), have a college degree (46 percent over the age of 24) and be naturalized citizens (62 percent). However, they are disproportionately likely to experience poverty, earning median household incomes of just $54,000. Nonetheless, MENA immigrants sent almost $56 billion in remittances in 2020, with these funds comprising as much as a third of some MENA countries’ GDPs. (Kyla Schmitt for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)

Middle Eastern and North African Immigrants in the United States,
Migration Policy Institute (MPI), January 10, 2018, 11 pp.
Authors:  Mattea Cumoletti & Jeanne Batalova
This report updates a 2015 MPI profile of Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) immigrants. These immigrants now represent 3 percent of the approximately 44 million immigrants in the U.S. The report discusses the socioeconomic characteristics of the MENA population as gleaned from census and other data.  Each data point is compared with the immigrant population in general and the native-born population. For example, in 2016, 43 percent of MENA immigrants (ages 25 and above) had a bachelor's degree or higher, compared to 30 percent of all immigrants and 32 percent of native-born adults. Nevertheless, 27 percent of MENA immigrant families lived in poverty, compared to 17 percent of all immigrant families and 14 percent of U.S.-born families. There are, of course, wide variations among the various MENA national origin populations. For example, 63 percent of immigrants from Egypt have finished college, compared to only 16 percent of immigrants from Yemen. Labor force participation for female MENA immigrants (41 percent) lags behind immigrant women in general (56 percent) and U.S.-born women (59 percent), "a disparity possibly attributable to the more conservative culture in many Muslim countries." The report features interactive maps that allow the reader to track changes in the size of MENA country populations over time and to pinpoint the distribution of these populations by state, city, and metropolitan area. 

Immigrants from New Origin Countries in the United States,
Migration Policy Institute, January 17, 2019, 9 pp. 
Authors:  Jie Zong & Jeanne Batalova
This short “Spotlight” article focuses on changing demographics within the U.S. immigrant population. A full 76 percent of the immigrant population growth from 2010 to 2017 came from 15 countries, some considered “new origin countries” in this report. While the Mexican immigrant population declined during this period, the population from India grew by 47 percent (and showed the largest absolute increase of 830,000). Other large growth countries were Venezuela (91 percent) and Bangladesh (62 percent). The Chinese grew by 36 percent, adding 644,000 to their total – the 2nd largest absolute increase. The Spotlight goes on to examine the socioeconomic characteristics and geographic distribution of these newer immigrant groups. Among the data points covered is the educational attainment of each of these groups, which show wide variations from country to country.


U.S. Approves Far Fewer Muslim Refugees, Immigrants, & Travelers,
Cato at Liberty, April 23, 2018, 9 pp.
Author: David Bier

In this study, David Bier from the CATO Institute examines s U.S. Department of State statistics from 2016 to 2018 to show how the "travel ban" executive order against travelers and immigrants from Muslim-majority countries is actually working. In three years, the number of Muslim refugees dropped 91 percent, immigrant visas to people from Muslim-majority countries decreased 26 percent, and temporary visas issued to those from Muslim-majority countries declined 32 percent. The main causes of these declines are the lower refugee admittance cap, hateful rhetoric against Muslims, and use of the "extreme immigration vetting" form DS-5535. Many visa applications from Muslims have fallen into the "administrative processing" queue for further scrutiny or been denied. The author states that President Trump is following through with his campaign promise to "ban Muslims from entering the United States" and that the longer-term effects from this so-called "temporary" measure remain to be seen (Sakura Tomizawa for the Immigrant Learning Center's Public Education Institute).


Crisis Prompts Record Emigration from Nicaragua, Surpassing Cold War Era,
 Migration Policy Institute, March 7, 2023, 7 pp.
Author:  Charles G. Ripley III

In recent years, Nicaragua has been facing a political and economic crisis that has led to a significant increase in emigration. The situation can be traced back to 2018 when protests erupted against President Daniel Ortega's government due to allegations of corruption and authoritarianism. These protests were met with a violent crackdown by the government, resulting in hundreds of deaths and thousands of injuries. This report illuminates the connection between authoritarian governments and forced migration. The repression of dissent and the erosion of democratic institutions have created a climate of fear and instability in the country. As a result, many Nicaraguans have been forced to flee their homes and seek refuge in other countries. The emigration numbers have reached record levels, surpassing even the levels seen during the Cold War era when Nicaragua was embroiled in a civil war. The reasons for emigration vary, but they often include a desire for safety, economic opportunities, and a lack of faith in the government's ability to address the crisis. Many Nicaraguans have sought asylum in the neighboring country of Costa Rica, which has welcomed Nicaraguan laborers for many years.  Even though many migrants to Costa Rica now are well-educated professionals, the Costa Rican government has imposed restrictions on migration, forcing many Nicaraguans to head north to Mexico and the United States, or further south to Panama. Today, 192,000 Nicaraguan asylum seekers and refugees live in Costa Rica. In 2021, the Nicaraguan population in the U.S. was 257,000.


Peruvians in the United States: 1980-2008,
Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies, City University of New York, October, 2010, 37 pp.

This study examines the growth and changing demographic profile of the Peruvian population in the U.S. Topics covered include: the size, nativity, and spatial distribution of the Peruvian population; household income, employment, and poverty levels; years of schooling and English language abilities; citizenship status; trends in racial self-declaration; and marriage patterns. Among major findings: Peruvians have relatively high median household income compared with other race/ethnic groups in the U.S and other Latino national subgroups, and the lowest poverty rates.


El Salvador: Civil War, Natural Disasters, and Gang Violence Drive Migration,
Migration Policy Institute, August 29, 2018, 10 pp.
Authors: Cecilia Menjivar & Andrea G
mez Cervantes
With 1.4 million immigrants in the United States, Salvadorans are the second largest Latin American group in the country. They come from the smallest, but most densely populated country in Central America, a country ravaged by class divisions, civil war, and gang violence. This essay provides a description of the circumstances leading to the Salvadoran exodus, as well as an overview of characteristics of the Salvadoran diaspora in the U.S. The authors trace the origins of El Salvador’s instability to the privatization of indigenous community lands for coffee production in the 19th century.  The military and the landowners formed an alliance in the 1930s resulting in decades of military rule. The expulsion of some 300,000 Salvadoran workers out of Honduras starting in 1969 exacerbated tensions in the country, leading to a bloody civil war that lasted 12 years, killed 75,000, and displaced more than 1 million Salvadorans, many to the U.S.  The authors pick up the story in the U.S. to explain what happened to these refugees, as well as those Salvadorans who came later.  As of 2016, there were over 1.3 million Salvadorans living in the U.S., making them the largest Central American group. With the revocation of temporary protected status by the Trump administration, nearly 200,000 Salvadorans face an agonizing choice as to what to do when their permission to live and work in the U.S. ends.

A Profile of the Modern Salvadoran Migrant
U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants & Universidad Tecnólogica de El Salvador, December, 2013, 57 pp.
The research team for this study administered surveys and conducted interviews with more than 800 would-be immigrants to the United States, all of whom had been recently deported and repatriated to El Salvador. The researchers tried to capture the experience of these migrants as they traversed two countries (Guatemala and Mexico) on the perilous route to the U.S., often on a freight train known as "La Bestia." Kidnappings were "systematic and widespread." Roughly half of all respondents undertook the journey with the help of a coyote or guide. The average cost to hire a guide was $2,300. Of the total surveyed population, about 10 percent of women and 20 percent of men were abandoned by their guides. The study also covers a wide range of other data points, including socio-demographic characteristics of the population, reasons for migration, number of prior attempted migrations, and whether respondents have family or friends in the U.S.


South American Immigrants in the United States,
Migration Policy Institute, May 2, 2013, 8 pp.
Authors: Sierra Stoney, Jeanne Batalova, & Joseph Russell

This report uses census and Department of Homeland Security data to create a portrait the South American immigrant population in the U.S. Although representing only seven percent of the U.S. foreign-born population, South Americans are better educated, less likely to enter as refugees and more likely to enter as immediate family members than the overall foreign-born population. South American immigrants show similar characteristics to other immigrants in the U.S. in terms of age, arrival period, naturalization rates and occupations. The data shows that around 2.7 million South American immigrants live in the United States: a seven-fold rise since 1960. And while South America makes up the smallest region of origin of all Latin American immigrants, South Americans were the second-fastest growing segment of the Latin American immigrant population. They are more likely than the native-born to be of working age and heavily support critical industries such as transportation, finance and education. In fact, they are nearly as likely as native-born Americans to have a bachelor's degree or higher. (Denzil Mohammed)


Syrian Refugees in the United States
Migration Policy Institute, January 12, 2017, 6 pp.
Authors: Jie Zong & Jeanne Batalova

Syrian refugees represent a new migration flow to the United States. This report uses data from the State Department's Refugee Processing Center, the Department of Homeland Security and the American Community Survey to describe Syrian refugee resettlement in the U.S. by city and state, age and gender, and religion and language. The Syrian Civil War has displaced 11 million people since 2011, with 4.9 million registered as refugees worldwide and 900,000 having filed asylum claims in Europe. Between October 11, 2011, and December 31, 2016, the United States resettled 18,007 Syrian refugees, although 31 mostly Republican governors voiced opposition to the program following the 2015 Paris terrorist attacks. Of the total number of Syrian refugees, 30 percent were resettled in California, Michigan and Texas. Within the same time frame, San Diego, Chicago and Troy, MI resettled the most Syrians of all major cities, amounting to 13 percent of overall Syrian refugee resettlement. Of all Syrian refugees resettled since 2011, 72 percent were women and children under the age of 14, and nearly half were under 14 years of age. Regarding religious and linguistic demographics, the overwhelming majority of Syrian refugees were Muslim (98 percent) and spoke Arabic (96 percent). While the Obama administration announced its plan to raise the refugee ceiling to 110,000 in FY 2017 citing a global humanitarian crisis, President-elect Donald Trump's campaign promise of suspending Syrian refugee admissions and cutting back the overall refugee ceiling to 50,000 leaves the future of refugee intake unclear. (Sarah Purdy, for the ILC Public Education Institute)



Ukrainian Immigrants in the United States
Migration Policy Institute, June 22, 2022, 12 pp.
Authors:  Joshua Rodriguez & Jeanne Batalova

In response to Europe’s largest humanitarian crisis since World War II, caused by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, the Biden administration is granting protection to as many as 180,000 Ukrainians through various entry pathways including Temporary Protected Status and the “Uniting for Ukraine” program. “Ukrainian Immigrants in the United States” by the Migration Policy Institute provides information about the size, geographic distribution and socioeconomic characteristics of the Ukrainian immigrant community present in the United States before the current invasion. This community, which is part of the approximately 1.1 million-strong Ukrainian diaspora, grew by almost one-third between 2000 and 2019: from 275,000 to 335,000. Between 2015 and 2019, almost half of Ukrainian immigrants lived in New York, California and Washington, with 37 percent residing in greater metropolitan New York, Chicago and Seattle. In 2019, Ukrainian immigrants had higher levels of educational attainment and median household incomes than both the overall immigrant and U.S.-born populations, while their rates of English proficiency and participation in the U.S. labor market were similar to those of the total foreign-born population. Compared to the overall immigrant population, Ukrainian immigrants became naturalized U.S. citizens at a higher rate (72 percent vs 52 percent) and were less likely to lack health insurance coverage (11 percent vs 20 percent). (Jasmina Popaja for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)

Ukrainians in the U.S. Who May Qualify for Temporary Protected Status: An Overview
American Immigration Council Factsheet, March 2022, 6 pp.
On March 3, 2022, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) announced the designation of Ukraine for Temporary Protected Status (TPS). TPS allows Ukrainians already in the U.S. as of March 1, 2022, especially those with expired legal status, the opportunity to remain in the U.S. legally for an 18-month period. This paper from the American Immigration Council estimates that of the 344,000 foreign-born Ukrainians in the United States, approximately 10% or 34,000 individuals, do not have an otherwise defined immigration status. These 34,000 individuals would be the ones who would benefit from the TPS program. The largest group of potential beneficiaries (19%) are found in the State of Illinois, followed by Michigan (10%), California (9%) and New York (9%). The paper points out that this group of potential TPS recipients is highly educated compared to immigrants in general and the U.S.-born population. While about one-third of all foreign-born and U.S.-born Americans hold at least a bachelor’s degree, half of the eligible TPS Ukrainian population fall into this category.


Counting the Uncountable: Overseas Americans
Migration Policy Institute, May 17, 2013, 7 pp.
Authors: Amanda Klekowski von Koppenfels & Joe Costanzo
This report summarizes findings from a new book by Amanda Klekwoski von Koppenfels entitled, Migrants or Expatriates, which examines the number, characteristics, and distribution of U.S. citizens who have emigrated to other countries or who are living abroad. Due to the limitations of data sources, estimates as to the size of this population vary widely: between 2.2 million and 6.8 million, or between 1.0 and 2.5 percent of the current U.S. citizen population. Motives for migration are quite varied: for marriage or partnership, study, employment, or retirement. Some became "accidental immigrants," stumbling upon an unanticipated work opportunity after travelling to another country. Many teach English or work in IT. Some are "love exiles," or gay and lesbian Americans with foreign partners, who moved abroad in order to live together and/or marry. The authors devote a good portion of the essay to discussing the multiple and often conflicting data sources they examined for their study. "Most countries do not enumerate those leaving as carefully as they do those arriving: the United States is no exception."


Venezuelan Immigrants in the United States,
Migration Policy Institute, February 15, 2023, 12 pp.
Authors: Ari Hoffman & Jeanne Batalova
According to this fact sheet from the Migration Policy Institute, there are 545,000 Venezuelan immigrants in the United States -- triple the number in 2010. Political instability and economic collapse have forced more than 7 million Venezuelans to flee their country and to take refuge in countries throughout the Americas.  A new Biden administration policy has allowed 30,000 migrants per month from four countries, including Venezuela, the opportunity to apply for a two-year humanitarian parole. Compared to all U.S. immigrants, Venezuelans are far more likely to have a college degree and less likely to be naturalized citizens—the latter an unsurprising development given the recency of their arrival. They are also more likely to secure legal permanent residence (also known as getting a green card) after being granted humanitarian protection. Venezuelan adults have higher rates of educational attainment than both the native- and overall foreign-born populations. In 2021, approximately 57 percent of Venezuelan immigrants ages 25 and older reported having a bachelor’s degree or higher, compared to 35 percent of U.S.-born and 34 percent of immigrant adults. Just over half (51 percent) of Venezuelan immigrants resided in Florida in the 2017-21 period. The next largest states were Texas (14 percent) and New York (4 percent).  

Venezuelan Immigrants in the United States,
Migration policy Institute, April 10, 2020, 8 pp.
Authors:  Luis Hassan Gallardo & Jeanne Batalova

Since the turn of the century, the Venezuelan immigrant community in the United States has tripled in size, with much of the growth coming in the last few years as Venezuela has undergone political crisis and massive economic disruption. The majority of Venezuelan immigrants have settled in neighboring South American countries, with Colombia being the top destination, followed by Peru and Chile. In 2018, Venezuelans were the fifth-largest South American immigrant population in the US. Venezuelans in the US have higher educational attainment compared to the total foreign-born population, and the majority of visas are obtained through immediate relatives and employment channels. Despite high education rates, they are more likely to live in poor families and lack health insurance, with a median household income of $56,000. Venezuelan immigrants also participate in the US labor force at a much higher rate than the overall immigrant and native-born populations. Remittances back to Venezuela have grown significantly since 2000, reaching $289 million in 2019, a record high. (Julianne P. Weis, Ph.D.) 

A South American Migration Crisis: Venezuelan Outflows Test Neighbors Hospitality,
Migration Policy Institute, July 18, 2018, 9 pp.
Author:  Luisa Feline Freier & Nicolas Parent

The authors of this report assert that the Venezuelan exodus is “now the fastest-escalating displacement of people across borders in Latin American history” with the potential to eventually surpass the 5.6 million Syrians who have fled that country’s civil war. Estimates as to the current size of this displaced population are imprecise, ranging from a low of 1.6 million to a high of 4 million. Once one of the most prosperous countries in Latin America, Venezuela has descended into a cauldron of misery and violence. The report discusses the “patchwork of responses” to the Venezuelan migration crisis on the part of countries in Latin America. Argentina and Uruguay have been the most welcoming, granting Venezuelans two-year renewable residency visas allowing them to live and work in the country. Similar arrangements were instituted by Brazil, Columbia, and Peru. Since the end of the era of military dictatorship in the region, most countries in Latin America reformed their immigration laws to expand the rights of migrants – some even recognizing a right to free human mobility. Given the scope of the Venezuelan crisis, there is a possibility that some countries will revert back to a more restrictionist policy, especially those governments, e.g. Ecuador and Bolivia, that are supportive of the Venezuelan regime.



Vietnamese Immigrants in the United States,
Migration Policy Institute, October 2021, 9 pp.
Authors: Laura Harjanto and Jeanne Batalova
(Update of older report)

This short paper provides statistical and demographic characteristics of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. The bulk of these immigrants came as refugees in the aftermath of the U.S. war in Vietnam, and there are now 1.4 million foreign-born Vietnamese in the U.S. Most (52 percent) live in California or Texas and one-third live in just three metro areas: Los Angeles, San Jose, and Houston. Vietnamese immigrants are more likely to be limited English proficient (65 percent) than the overall foreign-born population (46 percent) and more likely to lack a high-school diploma than immigrants overall (29 percent vs. 26 percent). Yet, the median household income of Vietnamese immigrants is greater ($70,000) compared to the median income of immigrant households overall ($64,000) and native households ($66,000). As the bulk of these immigrants came to the U.S. many years ago, the median age of foreign-born Vietnamese (51) is higher than that of immigrants overall (46) and natives (37). The paper is filled with charts and graphs illustrating these and other characteristics. (Maurice Belanger, Maurice Belanger Associates)

Vietnamese Immigrants in the United States,
Migration Policy Institute, December 13, 2018 (Updated “Spotlight” Report), 15 pp.
Elijah Alperin & Jeanne Batalova
Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey and the Department of Homeland Security's Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, this report profiles the sixth-largest foreign-born group in the United States. Data points include: size and geographic distribution of the population, socioeconomic characteristics, immigration pathways and naturalization statistics, health coverage, and levels of remittances. Vietnamese immigrants arrived in the U.S. in three waves since the mid-1970s. Although at first most arrived as refugees, today the majority of Vietnamese come through family reunification channels. The Vietnamese foreign-born population has grown from 231,000 in 1980 to 1.34 million in 2017. Compared to immigrants overall, their naturalization rate (77 percent vs. 49 percent), and median income ($63,200 vs. $56,700) are higher. However, although two-thirds of them arrived in the U.S. before 2000, Vietnamese immigrants also are more likely to have limited English proficiency (66 percent vs. 48 percent) and are less likely to be college educated (26 percent vs. 31 percent). In total, the Vietnamese diaspora population in the United States numbers around 2.2 million people who send remittances back to Vietnam totaling $14 billion in 2017, an amount that has tripled over the last decade.




Immigrant Women and Girls,
Migration Policy Institute, March 4, 2020, 12 pp
Author: Jeanne Batalova
Immigrants make up 14 percent of all females in the United States and 52 percent of the 44.7 million immigrants in the country. "Immigrant Women and Girls in the United States” provides a demographic portrait of female migrants using data from the United Nations Population Division, the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2018 American Community Survey, and the Department of Homeland Security’s Yearbook of Immigration Statistics. Gender distributions vary from country to country, and region to region. Immigrants from the Caribbean, South America, Asia, and Europe, for example, are more likely to be women, while those from Mexico and Central America are more likely to be men. Immigrant women are generally older and are more likely to be married than U.S.-born women.  As of 2018, 53 percent (12.3 million) of immigrant women were U.S. citizens, compared to 48 percent of immigrant men (10.4 million). Women from Asia were more educated than those from Latin America. Women also fill the ranks of the undocumented population; 47 percent of the 11.3 million unauthorized immigrants in the U.S. between 2012 and 2016 were women. The report also looks at employment patterns, poverty rates, and fertility among immigrant women. (The Immigrant Learning Center)